Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Growth and Physiological Behavior of PHL-C Rootstock

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Horticultural Science, Khorasan Razavi Agriculture and Natural Resources Research & Education Center, Mashhad, Iran


PHL-C is one of the dwarf sweet cherry rootstocks which is a hybrid between P. avium L. × P. cerasus L. Direct rooting of sweet cherry rootstocks is difficult which can be solved by using in vitro propagation. Transfer of plantlets from in vitro to ex vitro limit the use of micro propagation, because of weak root systems and low survival rates. This study was conducted in order to select the best biohardening agents in order to improve the growth of PHL-C dwarf rootstocks in Khorasan Razavi Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center. Three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) strains, Diversispora epigaea, Rhizophagus intraradices and Rhizophagus fasciculatus, were used as in vitro raised PHL-C plantlets. Results showed that plantlets inoculated with Diversispora epigaea gave the highest leaf area, root diameter, root surface and phosphor concentration. Diversispora epigaea was more effective in improving most of the growth and physiological attributes of inoculated tissue culture raised plantlets of PHL-C. However, the highest total root length (4113 mm) was found in Rhizophagus fasciculatus inoculated plantlets


Abdul Jaleel C, Gopi R, Sankar B, Manivannan P, Kishorekumar A, Sridharan R and Panneerselvam R, 2007. Studies on germination, seedling vigour, lipid peroxidation and proline metabolism in Catharanthus roseus seedlings under salt stress. South African Journal of Botany 73 (2): 190–195.
Arines J and Ballester A, 1992. Mycorrhization of micropropagated Prunus avium L. plantlets. In: Micropropagation, Root Regeneration, and Mycorrhizas. P 45. Joint Meeting Between COST 87 and COST 8.10, Dijon, France.
Azevedo-Neto AD, Prisco JT, Enis-Filho J, Braga de Abreu CE and Gomes-Filho E, 2006. Effect of salt stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation maize genotypes. Environmental and Experimental Botany 56 (1): 87–94.
Branzanti B, Gianinazzi-Pearson V and Gianinazzi S, 1992. Influence of phosphate fertilization on the growth and nutrient status of micropropagated apple infected with endomycorrhizal fungi during the weaning stage. Agronomie 12 (10): 841–845.
Brown JC, Clark RB and Jones WE, 1977.  Efficient and inefficient use of phosphorus by sorghum. Soil Science Society of America Journal 41 (4): 747-750.
Cavagnaro TR, Smith FA, Ayling SM and Smith SE, 2003. Growth and phosphorus nutrition of a Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. New Phytologist 157: 127–134.
Declerck S, Risede, JM and Delvaux B, 2002. Greenhouse response of micropropagated bananas inoculated with in vitro monoxenically produced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Scientia Horticulturae 93 (3-4): 301–309.
Dietz KJ and Foyer C, 1986. The relationship between phosphate and photosynthesis in leaves: reversibility of the effects of phosphate deficiency on photosynthesis. Planta 167: 376–81.
Gamalero E, Trotta A, Massa N, Copetta A, Martinotti MG and Berta G, 2004. Impact of two fluorescent pseudomonads and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on tomato plant growth, root architecture and P acquisition. Mycorrhiza 14: 185–192.
Gaur A and Adholeya V, 1999.  Mycorrhizal effects on the acclimatization, survival, growth and chlorophyll of micro propagated Syngonium and Draceana inoculated at weaning and hardening stages. Mycorrhiza 9: 215-219.
Graham JH and Timmer LW, 1984. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal development and growth response of rough lemon in soil and soilless media: effect of phosphorus source. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 109: 118–121.
Hazarika BN, 2003. Acclimatization of tissue-cultured plants. Current Science 85 (12): 12–25.
Jaizme-Vega MC, Tenoury P, Pinochet J and Jaumot M, 1997. Interactions between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and Glomus mosseae in banana. Plant and Soil 196 91): 27–35.
Janos DP, 2007. Plant responsiveness to mycorrhizas differs from dependence upon mycorrhizas. Mycorrhiza 17: 75–91.
Koide RT, 1991. Nutrient supply, nutrient demand and plant response to mycorrhizal infection. New Phytologist 117: 365-386.
Kung'u JB, Lasco RD, Dela Cruz LU, Dela Cruz RE and Husain, T, 2008. Effect of vesicular arboscular mycorrhiza (VAM) fungi inoculation on coppicing ability and drought resistance of Senna spectabilis. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40: 2217-2224.
Lopez-Bucio J, Cruz-Ramirez A and Herrera-Estrella L, 2003. The role of nutrient availability in regulating root architecture. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6: 280–287.
Munkvold L, Kjoller R, Vestberg M, Rosendahl S and Jakobsen I, 2004. High functional diversity within species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 164: 357–364.
Murphy J and Riley JP, 1962. A modified single solution method for determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27: 31-36.
Ortas I, 2012. Mycorrhiza in Citrus: Growth and Nutrition. In: Srivastava A (Ed). Advances in Citrus Nutrition. Springer, Dordrecht.
Puthur JT, Prasad KVSK, Sharmila P and Pardha Saradhi P, 1998. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves establishment of micropropagated Leucaena leucocephala plantlets. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 53: 41–47.
Rillig MC, Ramsey PW, Gannon JE, Mummey DL, Gadkar V and Kapulnik Y, 2008. Suitability of mycorrhiza-defective mutant/wildtype plant pairs (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Micro-Tom) to address questions in mycorrhizal soil ecology. Plant and Soil 308 (1–2): 267–275.
Rodrı´guez-Romero AS, Pin˜ero-Guerra MS and Jaizme-Vega MC, 2005.  Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria on banana growth and nutrition. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 25: 395–399.
Roldan A, Diaz-Vivancos P, Hernandez JA, Carrasco L and Caravaca F, 2008. Superoxide dismutase and total peroxidase activities in relation to drought recovery performance of mycorrhizal shrub seedlings grown in an amended semiarid soil. Journal of Plant Physiology 165 (7): 715–722.
Ruiz-Lozano JM, 2003. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and alleviation of osmotic stress: new perspectives for molecular studies. Mycorrhiza 13: 309–17.
Sarropoulou V, Dimassi-Theriou K, Therios I and Koukourikou-Petridou M, 2012. Melatonin enhances root regeneration, photosynthetic pigments, biomass, total carbohydrates and proline content in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 61: 162-168.
Singh SK, Minakshi G, Khawale RN, Patel VB, Krishna H and Saxena AK, 2004. Mycorrhization as an aid for biohardening of in vitro raised Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) plantlets. Acta Horticulturae 662: 289-295.
Sigh NV, Sigh SK, Sigh AK, 2012. Meshram DT, Suroshe SS and Mishra DC, 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) induced hardening of micropropagated pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) plantlets. Scientia Horticulturae 136: 122-127.
Smith SE and Read DJ, 2008. Mycorrhiza Symbiosis. 3rd edition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  787 pages.
Song H, 2005. Effects of VAM on host plant in the condition of drought stress and its mechanisms. Electronic Journal of Biology 1: 44-48.
Wang H, Parent S, Gosselin A and Desjardins Y, 1993. Study of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal peat-based substrates on symbiosis establishment, acclimatization and growth of three micropropagated species. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 118: 896–901.
Wunsch A and Hormaza JI, 2004. Molecular evaluation of genetic diversity and Sallele composition of local Spanish sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 51 (6): 635–641.
Yano-Melo AM, Maia LC, Saggin Jr. OJ, Lima-Filho, JM and Melo NF, 1999. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the acclimatization of micro propagated banana plantlets. Mycorrhiza 9: 119-123.
Yao Q, Zhu HH and Chen JZ, 2005. Growth responses and endogenous IAA and iPAs changes of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) seedlings induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation. Scientia Horticulturae 105 (1): 145–151.