Grouping of rice mutant lines based on morphological and agronomical traits under different moisture conditions using multivariate statistical methods

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

2 Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran.

3 Nuclear Agriculture Group, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Karaj, Iran.


To study the morphological and agronomical traits and determine heterotic patterns at the reproductive stage of 96 mutant rice genotypes (M2), two separate experiments were carried out under drought stress and flooding conditions at Gonbad Kavous University, Iran, in 2016 using a randomized complete block design with three replications. A factor analysis was conducted to reduce the number of variables to fewer independent factors, and three and four factors were identified under the flooding and drought conditions, explaining 68.3% and 76.05% of the total variance, respectively. Cluster analysis using the selected factors by the Ward’s minimum variance method and Euclidean distance led to grouping of the mutant rice genotypes. The best cutting points of the dendrograms were determined by the discriminant function analysis and four clusters were identified at both irrigation conditions, which were also significantly different. Genotypes of the first and second clusters had the highest yield and its components under the flooding condition. In contrast, under the drought condition, genotypes of the third and fourth clusters were higher yielding and more tolerant to the drought stress. Mutants No. 4, 18, 25, 28, 29, 43, 44, 48, 53, 72, 79, 88, 90, 91, 94 and 95 were present in the first and second clusters of the flooding condition, and in the third and fourth clusters of the drought-stress condition, indicating their superiority over other mutants in terms of grain yield and drought tolerance. The results obtained from this study can be used for selecting suitable parents for hybridization from different clusters to produce new rice cultivars.


Article Title [فارسی]

گ گروه‌بندی لاین‌های موتانت برنج از نظر صفات مهم مورفولوژیک و زراعی در شرایط متفاوت رطوبتی با استفاده از تجزیه های آماری چند متغیره

Abstract [فارسی]

به­ منظور مطالعه صفات مورفولوژیک و زراعی و تعیین الگوی هتروتیک در مرحله زایشی 96 ژنوتیپ موتانت برنج  (M2)، دو آزمایش جداگانه تحت شرایط تنش خشکی و غرقاب در قالب طرح بلوک­ های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشگاه گنبد کاووس در سال 1395 اجرا گردید. تجزیه به عامل­ ها به منظور کاهش تعداد متغیرها به تعداد کمتری از عامل­ های مستقل از هم منجر به شناسایی سه و چهار عامل، به ترتیب در شرایط غرقاب و خشکی، شد که  86/3 و 76/5 درصد واریانس کل را توجیه کردند. تجزیه خوشه­ ای با استفاده از عامل­ های انتخابی به روش Ward و فاصله اقلیدوسی منجر به گروه­ بندی ژنوتیپ­ های موتانت برنج شد. به منظور تعیین بهترین نقطه برش دندروگرام­ ها از تجزیه تابع تشخیص استفاده شد که نتیجه آن تولید چهار خوشه با تفاوت معنی ­دار از هم در هر دو شرایط آبیاری شد. در شرایط غرقاب ژنوتیپ­ های خوشه ­های اول و دوم بیشترین عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد را داشتند. از طرفی، در شرایط خشکی ژنوتیپ ­ های خوشه­ های سوم و چهارم پرمحصول­ تر و متحمل ­تر به تنش خشکی بودند. موتانت ‌های شماره 4، 18، 25، 28، 29، 43، 44، 48، 53، 72، 79، 88، 90، 91، 94 و 95 در شرایط غرقاب در خوشه‌ های اول و دوم و در شرایط تنش خشکی در خوشه ­های متحمل سوم و چهارم قرار گرفتند و بنابراین از نظر عملکرد دانه و تحمل به تنش خشکی به سایر موتانت­ ها برتری داشتند. از نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش می­ توان برای انتخاب هدفمند والدین مناسب از خوشه­ های متفاوت به‌منظور دورگ­ گیری و تولید رقم ­های جدید برنج استفاده نمود.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • برنج
  • تجزیه به عامل ها
  • تجزیه تابع تشخیص
  • تجزیه خوشه ای
  • خشکی
Ahloowalia BS, Maluszynski M and Nichterlein K, 2004. Global impact of mutation-derived varieties. Euphytica 135(2): 187-204.
Arefi H and Norozi M, 2008. Introduced two new rice varieties through mutation (gamma rays). Rice Research Institute of Iran, Deputy of Mazandaran. 1: 2-10 (In Persian).
Babaei A, Nematzadeh GA, Avagyan V and Hashemi-Petrodi SH, 2010. Radio sensitivity studies of morpho-physiological characteristics in some Iranian rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) in M1 generation. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5(16): 2124-2130.
Barnabas B, Jager K and Feher A, 2008. The effect of drought and heat stress on reproductive processes in cereals. Plant, Cell & Environment 31: 11-38.
Bartlett MS, 1951. The effect of standardization on a chi-square approximation in factor analysis. Biometrika 38(3-4): 337-344.
Blum A and Sullivan CY, 1986. The comparative drought resistance of landraces of sorghum and millet from dry and humid regions. Annals of Botany 57: 835-846.
Brown J and Caligari P, 2008. An Introduction to Plant Breeding. Blackwell Publishing, USA.
Cha-um S, Yooyongwech S and Supaibulwatana K, 2012. Water-deficit tolerant classification in mutant lines of Indica rice. Scientia Agricola 69(2): 135-141.
de Datta SK, Malabuyoc JA and Aragon EL, 1988. A field screening technique for evaluating rice germplasm for drought tolerance during vegetative stage. Field Crops Research 19(2): 123-124.
Domingo C, Andres F and Talon M, 2007. Rice cv. Bahia mutagenized population: a new resource for rice breeding in the Mediterranean Basin. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 5(3): 341-347. 
El-Degwy IS, 2013. Mutation induced genetic variability in rice (Oriza sativa L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 5(23): 2789-2794.
FAO, 2018. FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Ghorbani H, Samizadeh Lahiji HA, Rabiei B and Allahgholipour M. 2011. Grouping different rice genotypes using factor and cluster analyses. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production 21(3): 89-104 (In Persian with English abstract).
Guimaraes CM, de Castro AP, Stone LF and de Oliveira JP, 2016. Drought tolerance in upland rice: identification of genotypes and agronomic characteristics. Acta Scientiarum 38(2): 201-206.
Hair Jr JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE and Tatham RL, 2014. Multivariate Data Analysis.Seventh edition. Pearson Education Limited, UK, 729 p.
Haris A, Abdullah, Bakhtiar, Subaedah, Aminah and Jusoff K, 2013. Gamma ray radiation mutant rice on local aged dwarf. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 15(8): 1160-1164.                            
ISIRI, 1987. Determination of moisture content in cereals. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Retrieved October 14, 2017 from
IRRI, 2013. Standard evaluation system (SES) for rice. 5th ed. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 55pp.
Jeng TL, Tseng TH, Wang CS, Chen CL and Sung JM, 2006. Yield and grain uniformity in contrasting rice genotypes suitable for different growth environments. Field Crops Research 99(1): 59-66.
Kazerani B, Navabpour S, Sabouri H, Ramezanpour SS, Zaynali Nezhad K and Eskandari A, 2018. Determination of the best selection indices in mutant lines of rice at different moisture conditions. Journal of Crop Improvement (Journal of Agricultural) 20(1): 173-189 (In Persian with English abstract).
Kazerani B, Navabpour S, Sabouri H, Ramezanpour SS, Zaynali Nezhad Kh and Eskandari A, 2019a. Evaluation and selection of rice mutant lines based on drought tolerance indices. Journal of Plant Production Research 25(4): 15-31 (In Persian with English abstract).
Kazerani B, Navabpour S, Sabouri H, Ramezanpour SS, Zaynali Nezhad Kh and Eskandari A, 2019b. Evaluation of drought tolerance in rice recombinant inbred lines using stress tolerance indices. Seed and Plant Production 35(1): 59-81 (In Persian with English abstract).
Luzi-Kihupi A, Zakayo JA, Tusekelege H, Mkuya M, Kibanda NJM, Khatib KJ and Maerere A, 2008. Mutation breeding for rice improvement in Tanzania. International Symposium on Induced Mutations in Plants, 12-15 August, Vienna, Austria, p. 177.
Maluszynski M, Nichterlein K, van Zanten L and Ahloowalia BS, 2000. Officially released mutant varieties – the FAO/IAEA Database. Mutation Breeding Review 12: 1-84.
Manly BFJ, 2005. Multivariate Statistical Methods, A Primer. Third edition. Chapman and Hall/CRC, USA.
Marn Oo SH, Minn M, Linn KZ, Mar NN and Thin PP, 2015. Development of drought tolerant mutant from rice var. Manawthukha through mutation breeding technique using 60Co gamma source. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 4(11): 11205-11212.
Nguyen GN and Sutton BG, 2009. Water deficit reduced fertility of young microspores resulting in a decline of viable mature pollen and grain set in rice. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 195(1): 11-18.
O’Toole JC and Namuco OS, 1983. Role of panicle exsertion in water-stress induced sterility. Crop Science 23: 1093-1097.
Pandey V and Shukla A, 2015. Acclimation and tolerance strategies of rice under drought stress. Rice Science 22(4): 147-161. 
Romesburg C, 2004. Cluster Analysis for Researchers. Lulu Press, USA, 332 p.
Sabouri H, Biabani A, Fakhzri Moghaddam A, Katouzi M and Ebadi AA, 2008a. Genetic analysis of agronomic and qualitative traits in Iranian rice. Final Report of Project. Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran. 48p. (In Persian with English abstract).
Sabouri H, Biabani A, Fakhzri Moghaddam A, Mollashahi M, Sabouri A and Katouzi M, 2008b. Genetic analysis of agronomic traits in Iranian rice using diallel method. Final Report of Project. Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran. 49p. (In Persian with English abstract).
Sabouri H, Sabouri A, Jafarzadeh MR, Sajadi SJ, Mollashahi M and Jafarian HA, 2011. Introduction of tolerant rice cultivars for Gonbad Kavous region. Final Report of Project. Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran. 46p. (In Persian with English abstract).                                                                            
Senthamizh Selvi B, Ponnuswami V and Sumathi T, 2007. Identification of DNA polymorphism induced by gamma ray irradiation in Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) grafts of V1M1 and V2M1 generation. Journal of Applied Sciences and Research 3(12): 1933-1935.
Sharifi P, Aminpanah H and Ebadi AA, 2017. Classification of mutant rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes under drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 19(2): 148-164 (In Persian with English abstract).
Yilmaz A and Boydak E, 2006. The effects of cobalt-60 applications on yield and yield components of cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 9(15): 2761-2769.                                            
Yoshida S, 1981. Fundamentals of rice crop science. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. 269 p.