Impact of biological and chemical treatments on the improvement of salt tolerance in wheat

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Former MSc Student of Soil Science, Department of Soil Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Department of Soil Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.


Salinity stress has been known as an important constraint limiting agricultural production especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Among several strategies to improve crop growth under salt stress, using of salinity tolerant Trichoderma isolates and silicon application could be an effective and easily adaptive strategy. In order to evaluate silicon and Trichoderma virens inoculation effects on some physiological and morphological properties of wheat grown under saline condition, a greenhouse experiment arranged as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out. The factors included three levels of salinity (E1:3, E2:7 and E3: 10 dS m−1) from NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 sources (3:2:1 ratio, respectively), two levels of Si, 0 (S1) and 1.5 mM (S2), from the source of Na2SiO3 and two levels of Trichoderma virens (with and without inoculation). It was shown that salt stress caused very significant reduction in plant height, chlorophyll content, grain yield and other measured properties. Salinity stress increased proline and soluble sugar concentration, Na/K and Na/Ca ratios in leaves. Application of Si to the growth medium significantly increased chlorophyll content, grain yield of wheat grown under normal as well as under saline environments, but those influences were lower than the fungus effect. These results seem to show that silicon may alleviate salt stress in wheat due to decreased Na/K and Na/Ca ratios and proline concentration in leaves. Tirchoderma inoculation significantly increased chlorophyll content and grain yield of wheat under salt stress. Trichoderma virens deteriorate salt stress by significantly decreasing Na/K and Na/Ca ratios and proline concentration and increasing soluble sugar in the leaves.


Article Title [فارسی]

اثر تیمارهای بیولوژیکی و شیمیایی بر بهبود تحمل به شوری در گندم

Authors [فارسی]

  • مسلم طهماسبی شامنصور 1
  • نعیمه عنایتی ضمیر 2
  • مصطفی چرم 2
  • افراسیاب راهنما قهفرخی 3
Abstract [فارسی]

تنش شوری به عنوان یک محدودیت مهم در تولید محصولات کشاورزی به ویژه در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک شناخته شده است. در بین راهکارهای بهبود رشد گیاه در شرایط تنش شوری، استفاده از جدایه­های تریکودرمای قادر به تحمل شوری و کاربرد سیلیسیوم می­تواند راهکاری موثر و سازگار باشد. به منظور ارزیابی اثرات مایه­زنی تریکودرما ویرنس و کاربرد سیلیسیوم بر برخی از ویژگی­های فیزیولوژیکی و مورفولوژیکی گندم در شرایط شور، آزمایش گلخانه­ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورها شامل سه سطح شوری (3E1: ، 7 E2: و10 dS m-1 E3:) از منابع NaCl ،  CaCl2 و  MgCl2 (به نسبت  3: 2: 1) ، دو سطح سیلیسیوم از منبع Na2SiO3 شامل صفر (S1) و 5/1  mM (S2)و دو سطح  مایه­زنی قارچ (با و بدون مایه­زنی) بود. نتایج نشان داد که تنش شوری موجب کاهش معنی­دار ارتفاع گیاه، میزان کلروفیل، عملکرد دانه و سایر ویژگی­های مورد اندازه گیری شد. تنش شوری سبب افزایش غلظت پرولین و قند، نسبت Na/K و Na/Ca در برگ شد. کاربرد سیلیسیوم مقدار کلروفیل و عملکرد دانه گندم را در شرایط شور و غیرشور به­طور معنی­داری افزایش دادف ولی تاثیر آن بر ویژگی­های ذکر شده کمتر از قارچ بود. نتایج نشان داد که سیلیسیوم با کاهش نسبت­های Na/K و Na/Ca و غلظت پرولین در برگ باعت کاهش تنش شوری در گندم شد. مایه­زنی تریکودرما به طور معنی­داری میزان کلروفیل و عملکرد دانه گندم را در محیط شور افزایش داد. تریکودرما ویرنس با کاهش معنی­دار نسبت­های Na/K و Na/Ca و غلظت پرولین و افزایش قند محلول در برگ باعث کاهش تنش شوری شد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • ارتفاع بوته
  • پرولین
  • عملکرد دانه
  • قندهای محلول
  • کلروفیل
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