Changes in seed quality of dill (Anethum graveolens) ecotypes in response to water limitation and harvest time

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Plant Eco-physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of Plant Eco-physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor Universtiy, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

A split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out in 2015 to determine the best stage for harvest of three dill (Anethum graveolens) ecotypes (Varamin, Isfahan, Malayer) under different irrigation conditions (irrigation after 70, 100, 130 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan), in order to produce high quality seeds.Results clearly showed that seed quality of all ecotypes under different irrigation intervals was increased with improving seed development on the mother plants. Maximum seed quality on the basis of electrical conductivity of seed leachates, germination percentage and rate and seedling dry weight was obtained at about 2-12 days after mass maturity, depending on ecotypes and irrigation intervals. Earlier harvests due to immaturity and later harvests because of aging reduced seed germination and vigor.Seed vigor of all dill ecotypes gradually diminished with declining water availability to the mother plants. It was, therefore, concluded that irrigation of dill plants particularly during seed filling could improve the quality of seeds. Nevertheless, the best seed moisture content for harvesting dill plants and producing high-quality seeds was about 15-20%. The most vigorous seeds on the basis of germination rate and seedling dry weight were produced by Varamin, followed by Malayer ecotypes.
 

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

تغییرات کیفیت بذر ارقام شوید (Anethum graveolens) در واکنش به محدودیت آب و زمان برداشت

Authors [فارسی]

  • کاظم قاسمی گلعذانی 1
  • لیمو رضائی پور 2
  • بهاره دلیل 3
Abstract [فارسی]

یک آزمایش اسپلیت پلات بر پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1394 اجرا گردید تا بهترین مرحله برداشت سه اکوتیپ شوید (Anethum graveolens) شامل ورامین، اصفهان و ملایر تحت شرایط آبیاری متفاوت (آبیاری پس از 70، 100، 130 و 160 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A) برای تولید بذرهای با کیفیت بالا تعیین شود. نتایج به روشنی نشان داد که کیفیت بذر همه اکوتیپ­ها در فواصل مختلف آبیاری با پیشرفت نمو بذر روی گیاهان مادر افزایش یافت. حداکثر کیفیت بذر بر اساس  هدایت الکتریکی مواد نشتی از بذر، درصد و سرعت جوانه ­زنی و وزن خشک گیاهچه بسته به اکوتیپ و فواصل آبیاری در حدود 12-2 روز بعد از رسیدگی وزنی حاصل شد. برداشت­های زودهنگام به سبب نارسی و برداشت­های دیرهنگام به دلیل پیری موجب کاهش جوانه­زنی و قدرت بذر شدند. با کاهش فراهمی آب برای گیاهان مادر،  قدرت بذر همه اکوتیپ­ها به تدریج تنزل یافت. بنابراین، نتیجه­گیری شد که آبیاری گیاهان شوید به ویژه در دوره پر شدن بذرها می­تواند سبب بهبود کیفیت آن­ها شود.  با این حال، بهترین محتوای رطوبت بذر برای برداشت گیاهان شوید و تولید بذرهای با کیفیت بالا در حدود 20-15% است. قوی­ترین بذرها بر اساس سرعت جوانه­زنی و وزن خشک گیاهچه توسط اکوتیپ­های ورامین و سپس ملایر تولید شد.
 
 

Keywords [فارسی]

  • جوانه ­زنی
  • رسیدگی
  • شوید
  • فاصله آبیاری
  • کیفیت بذر
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