Effects of Salinity on Some Physiological Characteristics of Lepidium sativum L.

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Agronomy, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

2 1Department of Agronomy, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University


Salinity is one of the major environmental stresses, which has deleterious effect on growth, development and yield of crops. Due to the gradual increase in soil and water salinity in the East Azarbaijan province of Iran, the garden cress cultivation in this region has always been associated with many problems. In order to evaluate the tolerance of this plant to different levels of salinity through some physiological characteristics, the present experiment was conducted using randomized complete block design with five treatments consisting of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl concentrations and three replications. The results showed that with enhancement in salinity levels, sodium, proline, soluble sugars and carotenoids content increased but potassium content, potassium to sodium ratio and amounts of chlorophyll a and b declined. Salinity had no significant effect on chlorophyll a+b content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and relative water content. Plants were destroyed at 200 mM concentration after 21 days. Since potassium to sodium ratio was lower than 1 at 100 and 150 mM concentrations, continuing of salinity would has presumably led to the destruction of plants in these treatments.


Article Title [فارسی]

اثرات شوری بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک شاهی

Authors [فارسی]

  • علی گران پایه 1
  • کامبیز عزیزپور 1
  • لمیا وجودی مهربانی 2
  • رعنا ولی زاده کامران 3
1 گروه زراعت و گیاهان داروئی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز
2 گروه زراعت و گیاهان داروئی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز
3 گروه بیوتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان
Abstract [فارسی]

شوری یکی از مهمترین تنش­های محیطی است که اثرات مخرب بر رشد، نمو و عملکرد گیاهان زراعی می­گذارد. به دلیل افزایش تدریجی شوری خاک و آب در استان آذربایجان شرقی، کاشت شاهی در این منطقه با مشکلات عدیده­ای روبرو است. از این رو، به منظور بررسی تحمل این گیاه به سطوح مختلف شوری از طریق برخی ویژگی­های فیزیولوژیک، آزمایش حاضر بر پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با پنج تیمار شامل غلظت­های صفر، 50، 100، 150 و 200 میلی مولار نمک کلرید سدیم در سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. با تشدید تنش شوری، مقدار سدیم، پرولین، قندهای محلول و کاروتنوئیدها افزایش ولی مقدار پتاسیم، نسبت پتاسیم به سدیم و مقادیر کلروفیلa و کلروفیلb کاهش یافت. شوری بر مقدار کلروفیل a+b، نسبت کلروفیلa به b و محتوای نسبی آب برگ تاثیر نداشت. طی 21 روز آزمایش، بوته­ها در غلظت 200 میلی مولار نمک از بین رفتند. به دلیل کاهش نسبت پتاسیم به سدیم به کمتر از یک در غلظت­های 100 و 150 میلی مولار نمک، ادامه مدت تنش شوری می­توانست منجر به از بین رفتن بوته­ها نیز در این تیمارها شود.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • شاهی
  • شوری
  • ویژگی­های فیزیولوژیک
Ahmed R, Gabr AM, AL-Sayed A and Smetanska I, 2012. Effect of drought and salinity stress on total phenolic, flavonoids and flavonols contents and antioxidant activity in vitro sprout cultures of Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum L.). Journal of Applied Sciences Research 8(8): 3934-3942.
Ali G, Srivastava PS and Iqbal M, 1999. Proline accumulation, protein pattern and photosynthesis in regenerants grown under NaCl stress. Biologia Plantarum 42: 89-95.
Al Karaki GN, 2000. Growth, water use efficiency and sodium and potassium acquisition by tomato cultivars grown under salt stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition 23: 1-8.
Asch F, Dingkuhn M, Wittstock C and Dorffling K, 1999. Sodium and potassium uptake of rice panicles as affected by salinity and season in relation to yield and yield components. Plant and Soil 207: 133-145.
Ashraf M and Foolad MR, 2007. Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59: 206-216.
Azizpour K, Shakiba MR, Khoshkholg Sima NA, Alyari H, Moghaddam M, Esfandiari E and Pessarakli M, 2010.Physiological response of spring durum wheat genotypes to salinity. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33: 859-873.
Baalbaki RZ, Zurayk RA, Adlan RA, Sexena MM and Sexena MC, 2000. Effect of nitrogen source and salinity level on salt accumulation of two chickpea genotypes. Journal of Plant Nutrition 23: 805-814.
Bandehhag A, Kazemi H, Valizadeh M and Javanshir A, 2004. Salt tolerance of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars during vegetative and reproductive growth. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science 35: 61-71 (In Persian with the English abstract).
Bertrand M and Schoefs B, 1999. Photosynthetic pigment metabolism in plants during stress. In: Pessarakli M (Ed). Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress. Second Edition. Pp. 527–543. CRC Press.
Chinnusamy V, Jagendorf A and Zhu JK, 2005. Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plants. Crop Science 45: 437-448.
Cornic C and Massacci A, 1996. Leaf photosynthesis under drought stress. In: Baker NR (Ed).  Photosynthesis and Environment. Advances in Photosynthesis and Photorespiration. Vol. 5. Pp. 347-366. Kluwer, Dordrecht.
De Lacerda CF, Cambraia J, Cano MAO, Ruiz HA and Prisco JT, 2003. Solute accumulation and distribution during shoot and leaf development in two sorghum genotypes under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49: 107-120.
Demiral T and Türkan I, 2006. Exogenous glycine betaine affects growth and proline accumulation and retards senescence in two rice cultivars under NaCl stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 56: 72-79.
Ekiz H and Yilmaz A, 2003. Determination of the salt tolerance of some barley genotypes and the characteristics affecting tolerance. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 27: 253-260.
El Baz FK, Mohamed AA and Aly AA, 2003. Development of biochemical markers for salt stress tolerance in cucumber plants. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 6: 16-22.
El Hendawy SE, Hu Y and Schmidhalter U, 2005. Growth, ion content, gas exchange and water relations of wheat genotypes differing in salt tolerances. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 56: 123-134.
Erylmaz F, 2006. The relationships between salt stress and anthocyanin content in higher plants. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment 20: 47-52.
Fang Z, Bouwkamp J and Solomos T, 1998. Chlorophyllase activities and chlrophyll degradation during leaf senescence in non-yellowing mutant and wild type of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Journal of Experimental Botany 49: 503-510.
Farkhondeh R, Nabizadeh E and Jalilnezhad N, 2012. Effect of salinity stress on proline content, membrane stability and water relations in two sugar beet cultivars. International Journal of AgriScience 2(5): 385-392.
Fedina I, Georgieva K, Velitchkova M and Grigorova I, 2006. Effect of pretreatment of barley seedlings with different salts on the level of UV-B induced and UV-B absorbing compounds. Environmental and Experimental Botany 56: 225-230.
Flowers TJ, 2004. Improving crop salt tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany 55: 307-319.
Gadallah MAA, 1999. Effects of water stress, abscisic acid and proline on cotton plants. Journal of Arid Environment 30: 315-325.
Grattan SR and Grieve CM, 1994. Mineral nutrient acquisition and response by plants grown in saline environments. In: Pessarakli M (Ed). Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress, Second Edition. Pp. 203-226. CRC Press.
Havaux M, 1998. Carotenoids as membrane stabilizers in chloroplasts. Trends in Plant Science 3: 147-157.
Heure B and Nadler A. 1998. Physiological response of potato plants to soil salinity and water deficit. Plant Science 137: 43-51.
Hoagland, DR and Arnon DI, 1950. The water culture method for growing plants without soil. California Agricultural Experiment Station Circular, No. 347. University of California, Berkely, CA.
Jampeetong A and Brix H. 2009. Effect of NaCl salinity on growth, morphology, photosynthesis and proline accumulation of Salvinia natans. Aquatic Botany 91: 181-186.
Matysik J, Alia BB and Mohanty P, 2002. Molecular mechanisms of quenching of reactive oxygen species by proline under stress in plants. Current Science 82: 525-531.
Misra N and Gupta AK, 2005. Effect of salt stress on proline metabolism in two high yielding genotypes of green gram. Plant Science 169: 331-339.
Munns R, 2002. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment 25: 239-250.
Nayyr H, 2003. Accumulation of osmolytes and osmotic adjustment in water-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) as affected by calcium and its antagonists. Environmental and Experimental Botany 50 (3): 253-264.
Neocleous D and Vasilakakis M, 2006. Effect of NaCl stress on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) (Autumn Bliss). Scientia Horticulturae 112: 282-289.
Ort DR, 2001. When there is too much light? Plant Physiology 125: 29-32.
Paranychianakis NV and Chartzoulakis KS, 2005. Irrigation of Mediterranean crops with saline water: from physiology to management practices. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 106: 171-187.
Parvaiz A and Satyawati S, 2008. Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants. Plant, Soil and Environment 54: 89-99.
Prochazkova D, Sairam RK, Srivastava GC and Singh DV, 2001. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity as the basis of senescence in maize leaves. Plant Science 161: 765-771.
Qasim M, Ashraf M, Rehman SU and Rla ES, 2003. Salt-induced changes in two Canola cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Biologia Plantarum 46(4): 632-692.
Radwan HM, El-Missiry MM, Al-Said WM, Ismail AS, Abdel Shafeek KA and Seif-El-Nasr MM, 2007. Investigation of the glucosinolates of Lepidium sativum growing in Egypt and their biological activity. Research Journal of Medical Sciences 2(2): 127-132.
Rascio A, Russo M, Mazzucco L, Plantani C, Nicastro G and Di Fonzo N, 2001. Enhanced osmotolerance of a wheat mutant selected for potassium accumulation. Plant Science 160: 441-448.
Reggiani R, Bozo S and Bertani A, 1995. The effect of salinity on early seedling growth of seeds of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 75: 175-177.  
Sairam RK, Rao KV and Srivastava GC, 2002. Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science 163: 1037-1046.
Sànchez E, Ruiz JM and Romero L, 2003. Proline metabolism in response to nitrogen toxicity in fruit of French bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Strike). Scientia Horticulturae 93: 225-233.
Schroeder WA and Johnson EA. 1993. Antioxidant role of carotenoids in Phaffia rhodozyma. Journal of General Microbiology 139: 907-912.
Silva JV, Lacerda CF, Costa PHA, Filho JE, Filho EG and Prisco JT, 2003. Physiological responses of NaCl stressed cowpea plants grown in nutrient solution supplemented with CaCl2. Brazilin Journal of Plant Physiology 15: 99-105.   
Sultana N, Ikeda T and Itoh R, 1999. Effect of NaCl salinity on photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation in developing rice grains. Environmental and Experimental Botany 42: 211-220.
Swatsitang P and Wonginyoo R, 2008. Antioxidant capacity of vegetable juices. KKU Science Journal 36: 83-94.
Wyn Jones RG, Brady CJ and Speirs J, 1979. Ionic and osmotic-regulation in plants. In: Laidman DL and Wyn Jones RG (Eds). Recent Advances in Biochemistry of Cereals. Pp. 63-103. Academic Press, London.
Xu S, Li J, Zhang X, Wei H and Cui L, 2005. Effects of heat acclimation pretreatment on changes of membrane lipid peroxidation, antioxidant metabolites and ultra structure of chloroplasts in two cool-season turf grass species under heat stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 56: 274-285.
Zhu JK, 2003. Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6: 441-445.