A Study on the Feasibility of Replacing Silver Nitrate with Natural Compounds in Preservative Solution of Gerbera jamesonii Cut Flowers

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student of Ornamental Plants, Department of Horticulture, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

2 Department of Horticulture, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran


Gerbera(Gerbera jamesonii) from the family of Asteraceae is regarded as one of the best cut flowers in the world. Despite of the publicity of Gerbera’s cut flowers, they have a short postharvest life. The objective of the present study was to study the replacement feasibility and the comparison of thymol (isolated from zataria), and essential oils of peppermint and rosemary (200, 400 and 600 mg l-1) with silver nitrate (200 mg l-1) in vase solution of gerbera cut flowers in order to increase vase life and some quality traits. The recorded traits were vase life, carotenoid, solution uptake, relative fresh weight, flower diameter, total dissolved solids and pH. The experiment was laid on a factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Means comparison revealed that the highest vase life was related to the treatment of silver nitrate, however, flowers treated with thymol (200 mg l-1) in comparison with other natural treatments, had the highest vase life and did not show significant differences with silver nitrate. The treatment of peppermint essential oil (200 mg l-1) resulted in the highest carotenoid level. The highest relative fresh weight and solution uptake were obtained for the thymol treatment (200 mg l-1). The highest amount of total soluble solids and flower diameter were obtained in the silver nitrate treatment. The lowest pH was obtained from the treatment of 600 mg l-1 peppermint essential oil. In total, it can be concluded that thymol and the essential oils of peppermint and rosemary can be used in vase solution of gerbera cut flowers. Further research using other natural compounds is required to find out the appropriate compound and also concentrations in order to help the environment conservation and improve human health in addition to increase the vase life of cut flowers.



Article Title [Persian]

بررسی جایگزینی ترکیبات طبیعی به جای نیترات نقره در محلول نگهدارنده گل شاخه بریده ژربرا

Abstract [Persian]

ژربرا (Gerbera jamesonii) یکی از بهتـرین گـل‌هـای بریـده جهـان محسوب می‌شود. با وجود محبوبیت گل بریده ژربرا، ایـن گـل دارای عمر پس از برداشت کوتاهی است. هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر، بررسی قابلیت جایگزینی و مقایسه تیمول (مستخرج از آویشن شیرازی)، اسانس‌های نعناع فلفلی و رزماری (200، 400 و 600 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) با نیترات نقره (200 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) در محلول گلجایی گل شاخه بریده ژربرا به منظور افزایش عمر گلجایی و برخی صفات کیفی گل بود. صفات اندازه‌گیری شده شامل عمر گلجایی، کاروتنوئید، جذب محلول، وزن تر نسبی، قطر گل، مواد جامد محلول و pH محلول بود. این آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی و با آرایش فاکتوریل با سه تکرار انجام شد. نتایج نشان دادند که بیشترین عمر گلجایی مربوط به تیمار نیترات نقره بود. در عین حال گل‌های تیمارشده با تیمول (200 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) در مقایسه با سایر تیمار‌های طبیعی، بیشترین عمر گلجایی را داشتند و اختلاف معنی‌داری با نیترات نقره نشان ندادند. تیمار اسانس نعناع فلفلی (200 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) بیشترین میزان کاروتنوئید را داشت. بیشترین جذب محلول و وزن تر نسبی در تیمار 200 میلی گرم در لیتر تیمول به دست آمد. بیشترین میزان مواد جامد محلول و قطر گل در تیمار نیترات نقره حاصل شد. کمترین pH محلول در تیمار نعناع فلفلی (600 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) حاصل شد. به طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که تیمول و اسانس‌های نعناع فلفلی و رزماری قابلیت استفاده در محلول گلجایی گل شاخه بریده ژربرا را دارند که با تحقیقات بیشتر و استفاده از برخی ترکیبات طبیعی دیگر می‌توان به غلظت‌های مناسبی جهت تیمار گل­های بریده دست یافت تا بتوان علاوه بر افزایش طول عمر گل­های بریده به حفظ محیط زیست و سلامت انسان نیز کمک کرد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • ترکیبات طبیعی
  • ژربرا
  • عمر گلجایی
  • نیترات نقره
Amarjit SB, 2000. Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture and Horticulture: Their Role and Commercial Uses.  CRC Press, 264 pages.
Anju MA, Tripathi, SN and Sehgal OP, 1999. Effect of pulsing, packaging and storage treatments on vase life of Chrysanthemum cut flowers. Advances in Horticulture and Forestry 6: 125-131.
Arnon AN, 1967. Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Agronomy Journal 23: 112-121.
Babarabie M, Zarei H and Varasteh F, 2015. The effect of rosemary essential oils and thymol on vase life and some physiological characteristics of Alstroemeria cut flowers. International Journal of Agriculture and Biosciences 4 (3): 122-126.
Bounatirou S, Smiti S, Miguel MG, Faleiro L, Rejeb MN, Neffati M, Costa
MM, Figueiredo, AC, Barroso JG and Pedro LG, 2007. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oil isolated from Tunisian Thymus Hoff. Food Chemistry 105: 146-155.
Da Silva JAT, 2003. The cut flower: postharvest considerations. Journal of BiologicalSciences3: 406-442.
Ebrahimzadeh A and Seifi E, 1999. Postharvest handling and storage of cut flowers, florist greens and potted plants. Akhtar Publication. 117 pages (In Persian).
Edrisi B, 2009. Postharvest physiology of cut flowers. Payam-e Digar Publication. Arak, Iran. 150 pages (In Persian).
Evans RY and Reid MS, 1988. Changes in carbohydrates and osmotic potential during rhythmic expansion of rose petals. Journal of the American of Society for Horticultural Science 113: 884-888.
Hassanpour Asil M, Karimi HA and Mousanejad S, 2015. Effects of essential oils, silver nanopartices and some of the chemical compounds on vase life of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflora L.) cut flowers. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Sciences 45 (4): 449-460 (In Persian with English abstract).
Hashemabadi D, 2014. Improving the vase life of carnation by STS and silver nanoparticles. Journal of Crop Production and Processing 4 (12): 223-233.
Hashemabadi D and Bagheri H, 2013. Comparison of tea extract, 8-hydroxy quinoline sulfate and rifampicin on the vase life of cut Chrysanthemum. Journal of Ornamental Plants 4 (1): 39-43.
Hashemi M and Mirdehghan SH, 2014. Effect of salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and some essential oils on quality and vase life of carnation cut flowers in different temperatures. Journal of Plant Production Research 21 (3): 75-95.
He S, Joyce DC, Irving DE and Faragher JD, 2006. Stem end blockage in cut Grevillea ‘Crimson Yul-lo’ inflorescences. Postharvest Biology and Technology 41 (1): 78-84.
Hoseini Darvishani SS and Chamani A, 2013. Investigate the possibility of improving vase life of rose cut flowers by some organic treatments and STS. Journal of Horticulture Sciences 44 (1): 31-41.
Ichimura K, Kohata K, Koketsu M, Yamaguchi Y, Yamaguchi H and Suto
K, 1997. Identification of methyl β-glucopyranoside and xylose as soluble sugar
constituents in roses. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 61: 1734–1735.
Jalili Marandi R, Hassani A, Abdollahi A and Hanafi S, 2011. Application of Crum copticum and Satureja hormonsis essential oils and salicylic acid and silver thiosulfate in increasing the vase life of cut rose flower. Medicinal Plants Research 5 (20): 5034-3034.
Karimi M, Hassanpour Asil M, Samieezadeh Lahiji H and Talesh Sassani S, 2008. Effect of
temperature and various chemical treatments to extend the life of cut flowers of Lilium. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 12 (4): 1-9 (In Persian with English abstract).
Kazemi S, Hassanpour Asil M and Ghasemnezhad M, 2014. Physiological effects of
some essential oils in comparison with 8-hydroxy quinoline in cut Lisianthus flowers
(Eustoma grandiflorum  L.)Iranian Journal of Horticultural Sciences 45 (2): 185-195.
Khosravi Nahrabadi L, Rood N, Danyaei, A and Babarabie M, 2015. The Effect of Eucalyptus and Rosa damascena essences with sucrose on vase life and physiological characteristics of cut Gerbera cv. ‘Alain Ducasse’.  Journal of Ornamental Plants 5 (4): 205-212.
Kiamohammadi M and Hasshemaabadi D, 2011. The effects of different floral preservative solutions on vase life of Lisianthus cut flowers. Journal of Ornamental and Horticultural Plants 1 (2): 115-122.
Kim, Y and Lee J.S, 2002. Anatomical difference of neck tissue of cut roses as affected by bent
neck and preservative solution. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticulture Science
43 (2): 221-225.
Knee M, 2000. Selection of biocides for use in floral preservatives. Postharvest Biology and Technology 18: 227-234.
Lambert RJW, Skandamis PN, Coote PJ and Nychas GJE, 2001. A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. Journal of Applied Microbiology 91: 453- 462.
Madadzadeh N, Hassanpour Asil M and Rouien Z, 2013. Physiological responses of Alstroemeria cut flowers to carvacrol, thymol, zatarin oil and silver nanoparticles. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 14 (3): 303-316 (In Persian with English abstract).
Mihajilov-Krstev T, Radnovic D, Kitic D, Stojanovic-Radic Z and Zlatkovic B, 2009. Antimicrobial activity of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil against pathogenic microbial strains. Archives of Biological Science Belgrade 62: 159-166.
Mirdehghan SH, Zeidabadi S, Roosta HR, 2012. Interaction of medicinal essential oils with calcium chloride and silver nitrate on quality and vase life of rose cut flowers.  Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 28 (4): 669-683.
Mousavi Bazaz A and Tehranifar A, 2011. Effect of ethanol, methanol and essential as novel agents to improve vase life of Alestromeria flowers. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 5 (14): 41-46.
Mutui, TM, Emongor VE and Hutchinson MJ, 2001. Effect of accel on vase life and postharvest quality of Alestroemeria (Alstroemeria aurantiaca L.) cut flowers. African Journal of Science and Technology 2: 82-88.
Parthasarathy VA and Nagaraju V, 1999. In vitro propagation in Gerbera jamesonii Bolus. Indian Journal of Horticulture 56: 82-85.
Pun UK, Shimizu H, Tanase K and Ichimura K, 2005. Effect of sucrose on ethylene biosynthesis in cut spray carnation flowers. Acta Horticulturae669: 171-174.
Rudnicki RM, Goszczynska D and Nowak J, 1986. Storage of cut flowers. Acta Horticulturae 181: 285-296.
Shanan N, 2012. Application of essential oils to prolong the vase life of rose (Rosa hybrida L. cv.
'Grand')  cut flowers. Journal of Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants 4 (1): 66-74.
Solgi M, Kafi M, Taghavi TS and Naderi R, 2009. Essential oils (SNP) and silver nanoparticles as novel agents to extend vase life gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii cv. 'Dune') flowers. Postharvest Biology and Technology 53: 155-158.
van Doorn WG, 1996. Water relations of cut flowers. In: Janick J (Ed). Volume 18. Horticultural Reviews.Pp. 1-85. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Oxford, UK.
van Doorn WG and D’hont K, 1994. Interaction between the effects of bacteria and dry storage on the opening and water relations of cut rose flowers. Journal of Applied Microbiology 77: 644-649.
Ziaei Movahed Z, Kafi M, Khalighi A, Azizi M and Sharifi R, 2010. An evaluation of the possibility of replacing natural compounds (Eugenia caryophyllata essential oil and other extracts) instead of chemical antibacterial compounds in preservative solution of cut Gerbera flowers. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Sciences 41 (4): 337-345 (In Persian with English abstract).