Physiological Quality of Soybean Seeds Affected by Water and Light Deficits

Document Type : Research Paper


1 1Department of Plant Eco-physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of Plant Eco-physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

3 Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor Universtiy, 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

4 3Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


In order to determine the best developmental stage of soybean at which maximum seed quality is attained under different shadings (S1, S2, S3: 0, 35 and 75% shade, respectively) and irrigation treatments (I1, I2, I3, I4: irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively), two split plot experiments using randomized complete block design with three replications were conducted in 2011 and 2012. Seeds were harvested at five day intervals in eight stages. Maximum seed weight (mass maturity) was achieved at 41-54 days after flowering. Seed filling duration decreased with decreasing water supply, but it was increased by shading. As a result, maximum seed weight, germination rate and seedling dry weight of seeds from shaded plants were higher than those of unshaded plants. However, minimum electrical conductivity and maximum germination percentage of seeds from shaded and unshaded plants under different irrigation treatments were almost similar. Maximums of seed quality parameters were obtained 1 to 9 days after mass maturity, depending on the light availability and irrigation intervals. At earlier harvests, because of immaturity, and at later harvests, due to aging, seed physiological quality was low. It was concluded that high quality seeds of soybean can be produced under different irrigation and shading treatments, providing that the seeds are harvested at about 16-20% moisture content.


Article Title [فارسی]

کیفیت فیزیولوژیکی بذرهای سویا تحت تأثیر کمبودهای آب و نور

Abstract [فارسی]

به منظور تعیین بهترین مرحله رشد سویا که در آن حداکثر کیفیت بذر تحت شرایط مختلف سایه‌اندازی (S1، S2 و S3: به ترتیب 0، 35 و 75% سایه) و تیمارهای آبیاری (I1، I2، I3 و I4: به ترتیب آبیاری پس از 60، 90، 120 و 150 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A) به دست آید، دو آزمایش مزرعه‌ای به ‌صورت طرح کرت‌های خرد شده بر پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال‌های 1390 و 1391 اجرا شد. بذرها در فواصل پنج روز و در هشت مرحله برداشت شدند. حداکثر وزن دانه (رسیدگی وزنی) در 54-41 روز پس از گلدهی به دست آمد. دوره پر شدن دانه با کاهش میزان آب کاهش یافت، ولی در اثر سایه‌اندازی افزایش پیدا کرد. در نتیجه، حداکثر وزن دانه، سرعت جوانه‌زنی و وزن خشک گیاهچه بذرهای متعلق به گیاهات تحت سایه بیشتر از گیاهان بدون سایه بود. با وجود این، حداقل هدایت الکتریکی و حداکثر درصد جوانه‌زنی بذرهای حاصل از گیاهان رشد یافته در سایه و نور کامل خورشید تحت تیمارهای مختلف آبیاری تقریبا مشابه بود. حداکثر ویژگی‌های کیفیت بذر 1 تا 9 روز پس از رسیدگی وزنی به دست آمد که بستگی به میزان دسترسی به نور و فواصل آبیاری داشت. در برداشت‎های زود هنگام به دلیل عدم رسیدگی و در برداشت‌های دیر هنگام به دلیل پیری، کیفیت فیزیولوژیکی دانه پایین بود. می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که امکان تولید بذرهای سویا با کیفیت بالا در تیمارهای مختلف آبیاری و سایه‌اندازی وجود دارد، به شرطی که میزان رطوبت بذرها در زمان برداشت در حدود 20-16% باشد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • آبیاری
  • پر شدن دانه
  • سایه‌اندازی
  • سویا
  • کیفیت دانه
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