Apse MP, Aharon GS, Snedden WA and Blumwald E, 1999. Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter in Arabidopsis. Science 285: 1256-1258.
Azcón-Bieto J, 1983. Inhibition of photosynthesis by carbohydrates in wheat leaves. Plant Physiology 73: 681-686.
Bates LS, Walderen RD and Taere ID, 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil 39: 205-207.
Boyer JS, 1982. Plant productivity and environment. Science 218: 443-448.
Briiggemann W, van der Kooij TAW and van Hasselt PR, 1992. Long-term chilling of young tomato plants under low light and subsequent recovery: Chlorophyll fluorescence, carbon metabolism and activity of ribulose-1, s-diphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Planta 186: 179-187.
Chen L, Zhong H, Ren F, Guo QQ, Hu XP and Li XB, 2011. A novel cold-regulated gene, COR25, of Brassica napus is involved in plant response and tolerance to cold stress. Plant Cell Reports 30: 463-471.
Chow CK, 1991. Vitamin E and oxidative stress. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 11: 215-232.
Chinnusamy V, Zhu J and Zhu JK, 2007. Cold stress regulation of gene expression in plants. Plant Science 12: 441-451.
Demiral T and Turkan I, 2005. Comparative lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense system and proline content in roots of two rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 53: 247-257.
De Vos CHR, Schat H, De Waal MAM and Ernst WHO, 1991. Increased resistance to copper-induced damage of root cell plasma membrane in copper-tolerant Silene cucubalus. Plant Physiology 82: 523-528.
Ensminger I, Busch F and Huner NPA, 2006. Photostasis and cold acclimation: sensing low temperature through photosynthesis. Physiologia Plantarum 126: 28-44.
Fahimirad S, Karimzadeh G and Ghanati F, 2013. Cold-induced changes of antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid peroxidation in two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding 3(1): 1-11
Fowler DB and Carles RJ, 1979. Growth, development and cold tolerance of fall-acclimated cereal grains. Crop Science 19: 915-922.
Fry JC, 1993. Biological Data Analysis. IRL Press, Oxford, UK.
Ghorbani A, Zarrinkamar F and Fallah A, 2009, The effect of cold stress on the morphologic and physiologic characters of two rice varieties in seedling stage. Journal of Crop Breeding 3: 50-66.
Gill SS and Tuteja N, 2010. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
Halliwell B and Gutteridge J, 2002. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, UK.
Handa S, Handa AK, Hasegawa PM and Bressan RA, 1986. Proline accumulation and the adaptation of cultured plant cells to water stress. Plant Physiology 80: 938-945.
Hassibi P, Moradi F and Nabipour M, 2008. Effect of low temperature on antioxidant mechanisms in sensitive and tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes at seedling stage. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 10: 262-280.
Hatice G, Çetinkaya C, Kadıoğlu M, Kesici M, Cansev A and Eriş A, 2008. Peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation in strawberry (Fragaria xananassa
) plants under low temperature. Journal of Biology
K, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th
edition. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Jahanbakhsh-Godehkahriz S, Karimzadeh G, Rastgar-Jazii F, Mahfoozi S and Hosseini-Salekdeh G, 2009. Influence of vernalization on some physiological characteristics and cold tolerance in two susceptible and tolerant cultivars of bread wheat. Electronic Journal of Crop Production (EJCP), 2(3): 85-106.
Janero DR, 1990. Malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid-reactivity as diagnostic indices of lipid peroxidation and peroxidative tissue injury. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 9: 515-540.
Janska´ A, Mars P, Zelenkova´ S and Ovesna´ J, 2010. Cold stress and acclimation-what is important for metabolic adjustment? Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12: 395-405.
Javadian N, Karimzadeh G, Mahfoozi S and Ghanati F 2010. Cold-induced changes of enzymes, proline, carbohydrates and chlorophyll in wheat. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 57(4): 540-547.
H and TianZhu
Y, 2004. Effect of low temperature stress on the membrane-lipid peroxidation and the concentration of free proline in Camptotheca acuminata
seedling. E-Database, http://www.cabdirect.org
Kappus H, 1985. Lipid peroxidation: mechanisms, analysis, enzymology and biological relevance. In: Sies H (ed). Oxidative Stress. Pp. 273-310. Academic Press, New York, USA.
Koç E, İşlek C and Üstün AS, 2010. Effect of cold on protein, proline, phenolic compounds and chlorophyll content of two pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties. Science 23(1): 1-6.
Konstantinova T, Parvanova D, Atanassov A and Djilianov D, 2002. Freezing tolerance tobacco transformed to accumulate osmoprotectants. Plant Science 163: 157-164.
Kuk YI, Shin JS, Burgos NR, Hwang TE, Han O, Cho BH, Jung S and Guh JO, 2003. Antioxidative enzymes offer protection from chilling damage in rice plants. Crop Science 43: 2109-2117.
Leyva A, Jarillo JA, Salinas J and Martinez-Zapater J, 1995. Low temperature induces the accumulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lays and chalcone synthase mRNAs of Arabidopsis thaliana in a light-dependent manner. Plant Physiology 108: 39-46.
Ma YH, Ma FW, Zhang JK, Li MJ, Wang YH and Liang D, 2008. Effects of high temperature on activities and gene expression of enzymes involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycle in apple leaves. Plant Science 175: 761-766.
Madani H, Nourmohammadi G, Majidi Heravan E, Shiranirad AH and Naderi MR, 2005. Comparing winter rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L.) according to yield and yield components in cold regions of Iran. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 7(1): 55-68.
Majdi M, Karimzadeh, G and Mahfoozi S, 2008. Effects of low temperature and exogenous calcium on the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and relative content of chlorophyll in cold susceptible and tolerant wheat cultivars. Pajouhesh-va-Sazandegi, 77: 175-181. (In Farsi with English abstract).
Moran JF, Becana M, Iturbe-Ormaetxe I, Frechilla S, Klucas RV and Aparicio-Trejo P, 1994. Drought induces oxidative stress in pea plants. Planta 194: 346-352.
Naidu BP, Paleg LG, Aspinall D, Jennings AC and Jones GP, 1991. Amino acid and glycine betaine accumulation in cold-stressed wheat seedlings. Photochemistry 30: 407-409.
Navari-Izzo F, Quartacci MF, Izzo R and Pinzino C, 1992. Degradation of membrane lipid components and antioxidant levels in Hordeum vulgare exposed to long-term fumigation with SO2. Physiologia Plantarum 84: 73-79.
Nouairi I, Ammar WB, Youssef NB, Ben Miled DD, Ghorbal MH and Zarrouk M, 2009. Antioxidant defense system in leaves of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea
) and rape (Brassica napus
) under cadmium stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum
Öncel IS, Yurdakulol E, Keles Y, Kurt L and Yıldız A, 2004. Role of antioxidant defense system and biochemical adaptation on stress tolerance of high mountain and steppe plants. Acta Oecologica
Oquist G, Hurry VM and Huner NPA, 1993. Low temperature effects on photosynthesis and correlation with freezing tolerance in spring and winter cultivars of wheat and rye. Plant Physiology 101: 245-250.
Paul MJ, Driscoll SP and Lawler DW, 1992. Sink-regulation of photosynthesis in relation to temperature in sunflower and rape. Journal of Experimental Botany 43: 147-153.
Prassad TK, 1996. Mechanisms of chilling-induced oxidative stress injury and tolerance in developing maize seedlings: changes in antioxidant system, oxidation of proteins and lipids and protease activities. Plant Journal 10: 1017-1026.
Rouhaninia M, Gerigourian V, Motalebi-Azar AR and Dezhampour J, 2006. Investigating the rate of damage and differences in proline level in flower buds of some commercial apricot cultivars in different phenological stages. Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 8(2): 103-112.
Ryan B and Joiner BL, 2001. Minitab Handbook, 4th edition. Duxbury Press, California, USA.
Smeekens S, 2000. Sugar-induced signal transduction in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 51: 49-81.
Stitt M, von Schaewen A and Willmitzer L, 1990. Sink regulation of photosynthetic metabolism in transgenic tobacco plants expressing yeast invertase in their cell wall involves a decrease of the calvin-cycle enzymes and an increase of glycolytic enzymes. Planta 183: 40-50.
Tatari M, Fotouhi-Ghazvini R, Etemadi NA, Ahadi AM and Mousavi A, 2012. Analysis of antioxidant enzymes activity, lipid peroxidation and proline content of Agropyron desertorum under drought stress. South Western Journal of Horticulture, Biology and Environment 3(1): 9-24.
Tognetti JA, Salerno GL, Crespi MD and Pontis HG, 1990. Sucrose and fructan metabolism of different wheat cultivars at chilling temperatures. Physiologia Plantarum
Valadiani AR and Tajbakhsh M, 2007. Comparison of phenological stages and adaptability of 25 advanced rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) varieties in autumnal cultivation in Urmia-west Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Water and Soil Science (Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources) 11(1b): 329-343.
Von Schaewen A, Stitt M, Schmidt R, Sonnewald U and Willmitzer L, 1990. Expression of yeast-derived invertase in the cell wall of tobacco and Arabidopsis plants leads to accumulation of carbohydrate and inhibition of photosynthesis and strongly influences growth and phenotype of transgenic tobacco plants. The EMBO Journal 9: 3033-3044.
Wise RR and Naylor AW, 1987a. Chilling enhanced photooxidation, the peroxidative destruction of lipids during chilling injury to photosynthesis and ultrastructure. Plant Physiology 83: 272-277.
Wise RR and Naylor AW, 1987b. Chilling enhanced photooxidation evidence for the role of singlet oxygen and superoxide in the breakdown of pigments and endogenous antioxidants. Plant Physiology 83: 278-282.
Yadegary LZ, Heidari R and Carapetian J, 2008. The influence of cold acclimation on proline, malondialdehyd (MDA), total protein and pigments contents in soybean (Glycine max) seedlings. Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 3(1): 74-79.
Yong IK, Ji S, Nilda RB, Tay H, Oksoo H, Baik HC, Sunyo J and Ja OG, 2003. Antioxidative enzymes offer protection from chilling damage in rice plants. Crop Science 43: 2109-2117.
Yuanyuan M, Yali Z, Jiang L and Hongbo SH, 2009. Roles of plant soluble sugars and their responses to plant cold stress. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(10): 2004-2010.