Evaluation of Genetic Variations in Iranian Confectionery Sunflower Landraces (Helianthus annuus L.) under Various Water Treatment Conditions

Document Type : Research Paper

Abstract

 
Abstract
In order to evaluate morpho-physiological traits of confectionery sunflower under different irrigation regimes, an experiment was carried out under field conditions in Agricultural Research Center of West-Azerbaijan province, Urmia, Iran in 2012. Fifty six confectionery sunflower landraces were arranged in 7 × 8 rectangular lattice design with two replications in each one of well-watered, moderate and severe stress conditions with 50%, 70% and 90% depletion of available water, respectively. Combined analyses of variance revealed significant effect of genotype, irrigation regime and their interaction on studied traits including grain yield, chlorophyll content, grain and kernel weight, grain length and width and kernel/grain ratio. 'Urmia-Anghane 4', ' Urmia-Gharagoz 1' and 'Salmas-Sadaghian' produced the highest grain yield (6310.31), (3778.83) and (2217.95 kg/h), under well-watered, moderate and sever stresses, respectively. In contrast 'Mashhad', 'Piranshahr-Andizeh' and ‘‘Mashhad’’ presented the lowest values. Severe drought stress caused 49% reduction in grain yield compared to well-watered condition. 'Shabestar-Kouzeh Kanan 2' (46.05) and 'Urmia-Heydarlou 1' (19.47) showed the highest and lowest chlorophyll content under well-watered and severe drought stress conditions, respectively. The high grain length was seen in 'Marand-Dizaj-Ghalami' landrace (29.59 mm). Under the well-watered, moderate and severe stress conditions, grain yield had significantly positive correlations with kernel and grain weight and grain width and length. Based on cluster analysis, the studied landraces were grouped in three clusters both in well-watered and severe stress conditions. But under moderate stress conditions, the studied landraces were grouped in five clusters. Considering all studied traits, the landraces 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 49, 55, 56 were superior genotypes under well-watered conditions. In moderate and severe stress conditions, the best landraces were (12, 35, 26, 31, 32, 56) and (2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 18, 22, 25, 27, 30, 31, 42, 43 46, 47, 55), respectively.
 

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی در توده‌های محلی آفتابگردان آجیلی (Helianthus annuusL.) ایران تحت شرایط تیمارهای مختلف آبیاری

Abstract [فارسی]

به منظور بررسی صفات مورفو-فیزیولوژیکی آفتابگردان آجیلی تحت رژیم­های مختلف آبیاری، آزمایشی در شرایط مزرعه در مزرعه تحقیقاتی ایستگاه ساعتلوی ارومیه در سال زراعی 1391 انجام گرفت. تعداد 56 توده محلی آفتابگردان آجیلی در طرح لاتیس مستطیل ساده (8×7) با دو تکرار مورد آزمایش قرار گرفتند. تیمارهای آبیاری شامل سه سطح آبیاری مطلوب (I1)، تنش ملایم (I2 ) و تنش شدید خشکی (I3) (به ترتیب آبیاری پس از تخلیه 50، 70 و 90 درصد آب قابل استفاده) بود. نتایج تجزیه مرکب داده­ها نشان داد که تاثیر ساده آبیاری، رقم و اثر بر همکنش آبیاری×رقم بر صفات عملکرد دانه، محتوای کلروفیل، وزن دانه، وزن مغز، طول دانه، ضخامت دانه و نسبت مغز به دانه معنی­دار است.  'Urmia-  Angane 4'، 'Urmia-Garagoz 1' و 'Salmas-Sadaghian' بیشترین عملکرد دانه را به ترتیب در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب (31/6310 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، تنش ملایم (83/3778 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و تنش شدید خشکی (95/2217 کیلوگرم در هکتار) تولید کردند. در حالی که ژنوتیپ­های Mashhad، PiranshahrAndizeh و  Mashhadدارای کمترین مقدار عملکرد دانه بودند. تنش شدید خشکی در مقایسه با آبیاری مطلوب، 49 درصد عملکرد دانه را کاهش داد. بیشترین و کمترین میزان کلروفیل به ترتیب از ژنوتیپ­های Shabestar-KouzehKanan 2  (05/46)  در
شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و Heydarlou 1 (47/19) در شرایط تنش شدید خشکی به دست آمد. بیشترین مقدار طول آکن از ژنوتیپ Marand-Dizajghalami (59/29 میلیمتر) حاصل شد. تحت شرایط آبیاری مطلوب، تنش ملایم و شدید خشکی، عملکرد دانه همبستگی مثبت معنی­داری با صفات وزن دانه، وزن مغز، طول دانه و ضخامت دانه داشت. بر اساس تجزیه کلاستر تحت شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و تنش شدید خشکی، توده­های محلی در سه گروه قرار گرفتند. اما در شرایط تنش ملایم خشکی توده­های محلی در 5 گروه قرار گرفتند. در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و با در نظر گرفتن کل صفات مطالعه شده، توده­های 1، 2، 3، 4، 5، 11، 12، 13، 49، 55 و 56 در زمره ژنوتیپ­های برتر بودند. در شرایط تنش ملایم و شدید خشکی به ترتیب توده­های (12، 26، 31، 32، 35، 56) و (2، 3، 5، 7، 9، 11، 12، 14، 15، 18، 22، 25، 27، 30، 31، 42، 43، 46، 47، 55) به عنوان ژنوتیپ­های برتر شناخته شدند.
 

Keywords [فارسی]

  • آفتابگردان آجیلی
  • تنش خشکی
  • توده محلی
  • عملکرد دانه
  • کلروفیل
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