Impacts of Drought Stress and Planting Methods on Sweet Corn Yield and Water Use Efficiency

Document Type : Research Paper


Seasonal drought is the most important factor to limit the production of maize in the world. Using a split plot design, a two year field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of limited irrigation regime on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). Responses of three sweet corn varieties KSC403, Merit and Obsession to three different water regimes were studied under two planting methods (raised bed and furrow planting). The three water levels (I1: 100%, I2: 80%, I3: 60%) of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc)) were arranged as main plots. Combination of the two planting methods and three sweet corn varieties were arranged in subplots. The evaluated traits were significantly affected by varieties (p<0.01).  The highest ear length and diameter and biomass belonged to Merit. Fresh ear weight was significantly affected by the interaction of variety and irrigation level. The highest (19.7 ton/ha) and lowest (7.4 ton/ha) yields (fresh ear weight) belonged to Merit at 100% and KSC403 and obsession at 60% irrigation level, respectively. There was no difference between planting methods with respect to the measured traits. Results showed that limited irrigation significantly decreased kernel number per row by increasing the anthesis-silking interval, which decreased grain yield. Biomass decreased by decrement of water amount.  The reduction in fresh ear yield and biomass decreased water use efficiency (WUE), but there was no significant difference between I1 and I2 irrigation levels for WUE.


Article Title [فارسی]

اثرات اعمال خشکی و روش کشت بر عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب ذرت شیرین

Abstract [فارسی]

خشکی فصلی یکی از عوامل مهم محدود کننده رشد و تولید ذرت در جهان است. آزمایشی دو ساله به منظور بررسی اثرات کم آبیاری بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب ذرت شیرین (Zea mays L. var. saccharata)، اجرا شد. این آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار انجام شد. کرت­های اصلی به سه رقم KSC403، مریت و آبسیژن تعلق گرفت. سطوح مختلف آبیاری  (تامین 100، 80 و 60 درصد ETc) و روش کاشت (روش پشته و کف جوی) به کرت­های فرعی تعلق گرفت. در بین ارقام مختلف از نظر صفات مورد مطالعه تفاوت معنی دار مشاهده شد (p<0.01). بیشترین طول و قطر بلال و حداکثر زیست توده مربوط به رقم مریت بود. اثر متقابل سطح آبیاری و روش کاشت بر  وزن بلال تر معنی دار بود (p<0.01). حداکثر و حداقل عملکرد بلال تازه با میانگین 7/19 تن در هکتار و 4/7 تن در هکتار، به ترتیب مربوط به رقم مریت در سطح آبیاری 100% ETc و ارقام KSC403 و آبسیژن در سطح آبیاری 60% ETc بود. اثر روش کاشت بر صفات مورد مطالعه معنی دار نبود. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش طول دوره  ASI(فاصله بین ظهور رشته­های ابریشمی و گل تاجی) در پاسخ به کمبود آب، سبب کاهش تعداد دانه در ردیف و در نهایت کاهش عملکرد دانه می­شود. وزن زیست توده با کاهش مقدار آب مصرفی کاهش یافت. کاهش عملکرد بلال تازه توام با کاهش عملکرد زیست توده سبب کاهش کارایی مصرف آب در ذرت شیرین گردید، اما بین کارایی مصرف آب در تیمارهای تامین 100 و 80 درصد نیاز آبی، تفاوت معنی داری مشاهده نشد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • رژیم آبیاری
  • کارایی مصرف آب
  • کشت روی پشته
  • کشت کف فارو
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