Responses of broad bean to water polluted with three solid raw dyes

Document Type : Research Paper


1 University of Tabriz

2 Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran

3 MSc student of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Technical and Engineering, Imam Hossein University

4 Assistant Professor of Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)


Textile dye wastes are significant sources of pollution on a global scale. Numerous plants may survive and degrade various forms of poisons in contaminated settings. To survey broad bean (Vicia faba L.) tolerance to three types of dye (Acid Yellow, Acid Red, Direct Blue) at five concentrations (0, 30, 50, 70, and 90 mg/L) during three growing stages (seedling, pre-flowering, flowering), a greenhouse experiment was conducted at the University of Tabriz in 2020. The dye type did not affect the number of pods, fresh roots weight, leaf area, root length, proline content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity. The control treatment had the highest pods (3.22 numbers per plant), the maximum leaf area (13380 mm2), and the heaviest root fresh weight (9.40 g per plant). The number of pods per plant decreased by 42.05, 40.01, and 19.30 percent in the Direct Blue, Acid Red, and Acid Yellow, respectively, compared to the control. Increasing the dye concentration decreased the pod number, leaf area, and root fresh weight. SOD activity and proline content increased at the dye concentration of 90 mg/L. Tolerance to maximum dye concentration by broad bean plants and increasing SOD activity and proline content showed that this plant could survive this stressful condition. These findings allow us to propose broad bean as an efficient phytoremediation species. 


Main Subjects

Abdoli S and Gassemi-Golezai K, 2021. Salicylic acid: an effective growth regulator for mitigating salt toxicity in plants. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding 11(1): 1-15.
Aires A, 2017. Hydroponic production systems: impact on nutritional status and bioactive compounds of fresh vegetables. In: Asaduzzaman Md and Asao T (eds.). Vegetables: Importance of Quality Vegetables to Human Health. Intech Open. doi:10.5772/intechopen.73011
Andrade HM, Oliveira JA, and Farnese FS, 2016. Arsenic toxicity: cell signaling and the attenuating effect of nitric oxide in Eichhornia crassipes. Biologia Plantarum 60: 173-180.
Anjana S and Thanga V, 2011. Phytoremediation of synthetic textile dyes. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Environmental Science 13: 30-39.
Azmat R, Haider S, and Askari S, 2006. Phytotoxicity of Pb: effect of Pb on germination, growth, morphology and histomorphology of Phaseolus mungo and Lens culinaris. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 9: 979-984.
Bahojb_Almasi A, Hassannejad S, Aghdasinia H, and Zare Nahandi F, 2019. Influence of textile dyes on some morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding. 9(2): 47-56.
Balseiro-Romero M, Gkorezis P, Kidd PS, Vangronsveld J, and Monterroso C, 2016. Enhanced degradation of diesel in the rhizosphere of Lupinus luteus after inoculation with diesel-degrading and plant growth-promoting bacterial strains. Journal of Environmental Quality 45: 924-932.
Bates LS, Waldren RP, and Teare ID, 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil 39: 205-207.
Beyer WF and Fridovich I, 1987. Assaying for superoxide dismutase activity: some large consequences of minor changes in conditions. Annals of Biochemistry 161:559–566.
Cakmak I and Marschner H, 1992. Magnesium deficiency and high light intensity enhance activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in bean leaves. Plant Physiology 98: 1222-1227.
Dazy M, Masfaraud J, and Férard J, 2012. Induction of oxidative stress biomarkers associated with heavy metal stress in Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. Chemosphere 75: 297-302.
Gusman GS, Oliveira JA, Farnese FS, and Cambraia J, 2013. Mineral nutrition and enzymatic adaptation induced by arsenate and arsenite exposure in lettuce plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 71: 307-314.
Haque M, 2008. Treatment of wastewater in Bangladesh. Cotton Bangladesh. Retrieved from:
Hassannejad S and PorheidarGhafarbi S, 2017. Plant Cell (Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry). Mortezadasht Press. 200 p. (In Persian).
Hussain I, Raschid L, Hanjra MA, Marikar F, and Van der Hoek W, 2001. A framework for analyzing socioeconomic, health and environmental impacts of wastewater use in agriculture in developing countries. Working Paper 26. International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Jolly YN, Islam A, and Mustafa AI, 2008. Effects of paint industry effluents on soil productivity. Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences 32: 41-53.
Khataee A, Movafeghi A, Torbati S, Salehi Lisar SY, and Zarei M, 2012.  Phytoremediation potential of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) in degradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92: artificial neural network modeling. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 80, 291–298.
Khataee A, Movafeghi A, Vafaei F, Lisar SYS, and Zarei M, 2013. Potential of the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides in biodegradation of an azo dye: modeling of experimental results by artificial neural networks. International Journal of Phytoremediation 15: 729–742.
Kurutas EB, 2016. The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: current state. Kurutas Nutrition Journal 15: 71.
Liang X, Zhang L, Natarajan SK, and Becker DF, 2013. Proline mechanisms of stress survival. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 19, 998-1011.
Liu C, Liu Y, Guo K, Fan D, Li G, and Zheng Y, 2011. Effect of drought on pigments, osmotic adjustment and antioxidant enzymes in six woody plant species in Karst habitats of southwestern China. Environmental and Experimental Botany 71: 174-183.
Mahmood Q, Masood F, Bhatti ZA, Siddique M, Bilal M, and Yaqoob H, 2014. Biological treatment of the dye Reactive Blue 19 by cattails and anaerobic bacterial consortia. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry 96: 530–541.
Meyer-Thurow G, 1982. The Industrialization of Invention: a case study from the German Chemical Industry. Isis 73(3).
Nilratnisakorn S, Thiravetyan P, and Nakbanpote W, 2007. Synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.): effects of dye, salinity and metals. Science of the Total Environment 384(1-3): 67–76.
Nakano Y and Asada K, 1981. Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell Physiology 22: 867–880.
Page V and Schwitzguébel J, 2009. The role of cytochromes P450 and peroxidases in the detoxification of sulphonated anthraquinones by rhubarb and common sorrel plants cultivated under hydroponic conditions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 16(7): 805–816.
Patil P, Desai N, Govindwar S, Jadhav JP, and Bapat V, 2009. Degradation analysis of Reactive Red 198 by hairy roots of Tagetes patula L. (Marigold). Planta 230, 725–735.
Raziuddin, Farhatullah, Hassan G, Akmal K, Shah SS, Mohammad F, Shafi M, Bakht J, and Zhou W., 2011. Effects of cadmium and salinity on growth and photosynthesis parameters of Brassica species. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43(1): 333-340.
Reema RM, Saravanan P, Dharmendria Kumar M, and Renganathan S, 2011. Accumulation of methylene blue dye by growing Lemna minor. Separation Science and Technology 46(6): 1052–1058.
Safi-naz SZ and Shaaban MM, 2015. Impact of treated sewage water irrigation on some growth parameters, yield and chemical composition of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. plants. International Journal of ChemTech Research 8(9): 114-122.
Saleh HN, Dehgani MH, Nabizadeh R, Mahvi AH, Yaghmaeian K, Hossein F, Ghaderpoorin M, Yousefi M, and Mohammadi A. 2018. Data on the acid black 1 dye adsorption from aqueous solutions by low-cost adsorbent-Cerastoderma lamarcki shell collected from the northern coast of Caspian Sea. Data in Brief 17: 774-780.
Saratale R, Saratale G, Chang J, and Govindwar S, 2011. Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes: a review. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 42: 138–157.
Sharma RK, Agrawal M, and Marshall FM, 2007. Heavy metals contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 66(2): 258-266.
Torbati S, Khataee AR, and Movafeghi A, 2014. Application of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) for biotreatment of a textile dye: investigation of some physiological responses and effects of operational parameters. Chemical Engineering Research Design 92(10): 1934–1941.
Varshney S, Hayat Sh, Alyemeni MN, and Ahmad A, 2012. Effects of herbicide applications in wheat fields; Is phytohormones application a remedy? Plant Signaling & Behavior 7(5): 570–575.
Verdoliva SG., Gwyn-Jones D., Detheridge A, and Robson P, 2021. Controlled between soil and hydroponic systems reveal increased water use efficiency and higher lycopene and β-carotene contents in hydroponically grown tomatoes. Scientia Horticulturae 279:109896.