Improvement of grain and oil yield-related traits of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) in response to exogenous application of spermidine under water-deficit and weed infestation conditions

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


A two-year experiment was performed to evaluate the efficacy of spermidine on the field performance of marigold under water deficit and weed infestation conditions in the 2020 and 2021 growing seasons. The experiment was arranged as the split split-plot design based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation intervals (I1, I2, and I3: irrigation after 40, 80, and 120 mm evaporation from the class A pan, respectively) were assigned to main plots, weed infestation (weed free and weed infestation) was assigned to the subplots, and foliar applications of spermidine (1 mM) (4-6th leaf stages and pre-blooming stage) were allocated to sub-subplots. The percentage of ground cover, leaf water content, leaf area index, and oil and essential oil yield decreased and leaf temperature increased in the I2 and I3 and also in weed infestation conditions. This reaction led to a decline in the grain yield of marigold plants. Foliar application of spermidine increased the percentage of ground cover, leaf water content, leaf area index, and oil and essential oil yield. It also decreased the leaf temperature. In conclusion, spermidine positively affected the grain and oil yield of marigold plants under water stress and weed infestation conditions.


Article Title [Persian]

بهبود صفات مربوط به عملکرد دانه و روغن همیشه بهار (Calendula officinalis L.) در پاسخ به کاربرد خارجی اسپرمیدین تحت شرایط کم آبی و آلودگی علف های هرز

Authors [Persian]

  • اسرا صادق زاده
  • محمدرضا شکیبا
  • سیروس حسن نژاد
  • سعید زهتاب سلماسی
گروه اکوفیزیولوژی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز
Abstract [Persian]

به منظور بررسی اثر اسپرمیدین بر عملکرد مزرعه‌ای همیشه­ بهار در شرایط کم‌آبی و آلودگی علف‌های هرز آزمایشی دو ساله در سال‌های 2020 و 2021 انجام شد. آزمایش به صورت طرح اسپلیت اسپلیت پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار پیاده شد که در آن فواصل آبیاری (I2، I1 و I3: به ترتیب آبیاری پس از 40، 80 و 120 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک کلاس A) به کرت ­های اصلی، آلودگی علف­ های هرز (عاری از علف­ های هرز و آلوده به علف­ های هرز) به کرت­ های فرعی و محلول­ پاشی اسپرمیدین (یک میلی مولار) (در مرحله 4 تا 6 برگی و پیش از غنچه ­دهی) به کرت­ های فرعی-فرعی اختصاص یافت. در سطوح  I2 و I3 و نیز در شرایط آلودگی به علف‌های هرز درصد پوشش زمین، محتوای آب برگ، شاخص سطح برگ و عملکرد روغن و اسانس کاهش و دمای برگ افزایش یافت. این واکنش منجر به کاهش عملکرد دانه گیاهان همیشه ­بهار شد. کاربرد اسپرمیدین باعث افزایش درصد پوشش زمین، محتوای آب برگ، شاخص سطح برگ و عملکرد روغن و اسانس شد. همچنین محلول­ پاشی اسپرمیدین  باعث کاهش دمای برگ شد. به طور کلی تیمار با اسپرمیدین بر عملکرد دانه و روغن گیاه همیشه بهار تحت شرایط تنش آبی و آلودگی علف‌های هرز تأثیر مثبت داشت.

Keywords [Persian]

  • آلودگی علف هرز
  • .اسانس
  • پلی‌آمین
  • عملکرد دانه
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