The effect of foliar application of grass pea sprouts extract on yield, yield components, and grain quality of two rice cultivars

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Agronomy and Crop Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran


77Germinated grains are a rich source of minerals, water-soluble vitamins, enzymes, and soluble sugars that can be applied by foliar spraying on the foliage of crop plants where photosynthesis takes place. A field experiment was conducted during the rice-growing season of 2020 to evaluate the effect of grass pea sprout extract on the growth and yield of two common local varieties of rice (Anbarbou and Shamshiri). The experiment was the 2 × 2 factorial combination of grass pea extract spray (2%) and rice cultivar. (based on the randomized complete block design with three replicates. Irrespective of foliar spray with grass pea extract, a significant difference between the two cultivars was observed for seed phosphorus and zinc content, and phytic acid concentration. Plants sprayed with the grass pea sprout extract significantly displayed greater net photosynthesis and water use efficiency. Grain yield, panicle number, grain number, grain weight, fresh and dry matter accumulations, and panicle length of plants at harvest increased up to 7.4%, 23.91%, 7.39%, 4.44%, 18.49%, 16.85%, and 26.5%, respectively, due to foliar application with the grass pea extract. Grain P content sprayed with the grass pea extract increased up to 65.38%, irrespective of the type of cultivar. Also, foliar spraying improved grain Zn content from 10.54 µg g-1 to 29.75 µg g-1. Although, the grain phytic acid increased from 4.86 mg g-1 to 6.71 mg g-1 by foliar spraying of the grass pea sprout extract, however, the ratio of phytic acid to Zn content in the grain decreased from 46.11 to 22.55%. Foliar spraying increased grain Zn content in Anbarbou by 1.2-fold as compared to Shamshiri. On the other hand, foliar spraying increased grain phytic acid concentration in Shamshiri by 1.65-fold as compared to Anbarbou. It seems that spraying the rice plants with the grass pea sprout extract was beneficial in terms of agronomic and physiologic characteristics and nutrients such as Zn and P. Also, Anbarbou responded better to the sprout extract than the Shamshiri cultivar.


Article Title [Persian]

تاثیر محلول پاشی با عصاره خلر بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و کیفیت دانه دو نوع رقم برنج

Authors [Persian]

  • محمود صادقی زاده
  • محمد جواد زارع
گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام
Abstract [Persian]

دانه جوانه زده منبع غنی از عناصر، ویتامین­های محلول، آنزیم ها و قندهای محلول هستند که می­توانند به صورت محلول پاشی برگی روی گیاهان زراعی مورد استفاده قرار گیرند. آزمایشی به منظور بررسی تاثیر عصاره استخراج شده از دانه جوانه زده خلر بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه دو رقم برنج، شمشیری و عنبربو، تحت شرایط مزرعه ­ای در سال زراعی 1399 طرح ریزی شد. آزمایش در قالب فاکتوریل 2 × 2 با محلول پاشی عصاره (2%) و بدون محلول پاشی روی دو رقم مذکور در سه تکرار پیاده شد. صرف نظر از محلول پاشی برگی، میزان فسفر، روی و اسید فیتیک دانه در دو رقم متفاوت بود. محلول پاشی با عصاره استخراج شده از دانه خلر موجب افزایش میزان فتوسنتز خالص و کارایی مصرف آب در هر دو رقم برنج شد. عملکرد دانه، تعداد خوشه، تعداد دانه در خوشه، وزن هزار دانه، میزان وزن خشک و تر و نیز طول خوشه تحت محلول پاشی برگی با عصاره خلر به میزان‌ 7/4، 23/91، 7/39، 4/44، 18/49، 16/85 و 26/5 درصد افزایش یافت. محلول پاشی با عصاره حاصل از دانه خلر موجب افزایش 65/38% محتوای فسفر دانه، صرف نظر از نوع رقم شد. همچنین محلول پاشی با عصاره خلر موجب افزایش میزان روی دانه از 10/54 به 29/75 میکرو گرم در کیلوگرم شد. اگرچه اسید فیتیک دانه از 4/86 به 6/71 میلی گرم در گرم با محلول پاشی عصاره گیاهی افزایش یافت، ولی نسبت اسید فیتیک به روی از 11/46 به 55/22 درصد کاهش یافت. محتوای روی دانه در رقم عنبربو در نتیجه محلول پاشی به میزان 1/2 برابر بیش از رقم شمشیری افزایش یافت. از سوی دیگر محلول‌پاشی با عصاره دانه جوانه زده خلر، میزان اسید فیتیک دانه را در رقم شمشیری 1/65 برابر نسبت به عنبربو افزایش داد. به نظر می­ رسد که محلول‌پاشی گیاه برنج با عصاره دانه جوانه زده خلر از نظر بهبود صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیکی و نیز مواد مغذی مانند روی و فسفر مفید بوده است. همچنین رقم عنبربو نسبت به شمشیری به عصاره دانه جوانه زده واکنش بهتری نشان داده است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • اسید فیتیک
  • روی
  • عصاره خلر
  • محلول پاشی
Akpinar N, Ali Akpinar M, and Türkoğlu Ş, 2001. Total lipid content and fatty acid composition of the seeds of some Vicia L. species. Food Chemistry 74(4): 449-453.
Al-Hussaini MK and Alsaadawi IS, 2013. Mitigation of drought stress effect on growth and productivity of mung bean by foliar application of sorghum water extract. Iraqi Journal of Science 54(3): 560-568.
Augustin J and Klein BP, 1989. Nutrient composition of raw, cooked, canned and sprouted legumes. In: Matthews RH (Ed). Legumes, Chemistry, Technology and Human Nutrition. Pp. 187-217. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Balakrishnan K and Natarajarathinam N, 1996. Effect of zinc supplements on yield and yield components in certain rice varieties. Madras Agricultural Journal 73: 596-600.
Behrouznajhad S and Zehtab-Salmasi S, 2011. Effects of foliar application of Fe and Zn on seed yield and mucilage content of psyllium (Plantago psyllium) at different stages of maturity.  Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding 1: 21-27.
Boonchuay P, Cakmak I, Rerkasem B, and Prom-U-Thai C, 2013. Effect of different foliar zinc application at different growth stages on seed zinc concentration and its impact on seedling vigor in rice. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 59(2): 180-188.
Brown PH, Cakmak I, and Zhang Q, 1993. Form and function of zinc plants. In: Robson AD (Ed). Zinc in Soils and Plants. Pp 93-106, Springer, Dordrecht. The Netherlands.
Chapman HD and Pratt PF, 1961. Ammonium vanadate–molybdate method for determination of phosphorus. In: Chapman HD and Pratt PF (Eds). Methods of analysis for soils, plants, and water. Pp. 184-203. Agriculture Division, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
Dobermann A and Fairhurst TH, 2000. Rice: nutrient disorders and nutrient management. Handbook Series, Potash & Phosphate Institute (PPI), Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada (PPIC) and International Rice Research Institute, Philippine, 191.
DuBois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, and Smith F, 1956. Colorimetric method for determination. of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry 28(3): 350-356.
Elizabeth KS, Chandrasekaran P, and Nair VM, 1988. Effect of soil and foliar application of N and P on the yield and quality of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.). Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala 26: 66-72.
Emre İ, Şahin A, Yilmaz Ô, and Genç H, 2010. Compositions of seed fatty acids in some Lathyrus taxa from Turkey. Acta Botanica Gallica 157(2): 241-246.
Erdman Jr., JW, 1981. Bioavailability of trace minerals from cereals and legumes. Cereal Chemistry 58: 21-26.
Eskin NAM and Wiebe S, 1983. Changes in phytase activity and phytate during germination of two Faba bean cultivars. Journal of Food Science 48(1): 270-271.
Greer HAL and Anderson IC, 1965. Response of soybeans to triiodobenzoic acid under field conditions. Crop Science 5(3): 229-232.
Haug W and Lantzsch H, 1983. Sensitive method for the rapid determination of phytate in cereals and cereal products. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 34(12): 1423-1424.
Hoagland DR, 1948. Lectures on the inorganic nutrition of plants. Second edition. Chronica Botanica Company, Waltham, MA, USA.
Holm PB, Kristiansen KN, and Pedersen HB, 2002. Transgenic approaches in commonly consumed cereals to improve iron and zinc concentration and bioavailability. The Journal of Nutrition 132: 514S-516S.
Hussain MK, Aziz A, Ditta HMA, Azhar MF, El-Shehawi AM, Hussain S, Mehboob N, Hussain M, and Farooq S, 2021. Foliar application of seed water extract of Nigella sativa improved maize growth in cadmium-contaminated soil. PLoS ONE 16: e0254602.
Jyung WH, Ehmann A, Schlender KK, and Scala J, 1975. Zinc nutrition and starch metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant Physiology 55(2): 414-420.
Kalita MM, 1989. Effect of phosphorus and growth regulator on mungbean (Vigna radiata). Indian Journal of Agronomy 34(2): 236-237.
Kavipriya R, Dhanalakshmi PK, Jayashree S, and Thangaraju N, 2011. Seaweed extract as a biostimulant for legume crop, green gram. Journal of Ecobiotechnology 3(8): 16-19.
Lakshmi PV, Singh SK, Pramanick B, Kumar, M, Laik R, Kumari A, Shukla AK, Abdel Latef AAH, Ali OM, Hossain A, 2021. Long-term zinc fertilization in calcareous soils improves wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity and soil zinc status in the rice–wheat cropping system. Agronomy 11: 1306.
Lisiewska Z, Korus A, and Kmiecik W, 2003. Changes in chemical composition during development of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds. Nahrung 47(6): 391-396.
Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, and Randall RJ, 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193(1): 265-275.
Luo HW, Xing PP, Liu JH, Lai RF, He LX, Zhang TT, and Tang XR, 2020. Application of ornithine-induced regulation in yield formation, grain quality and aroma of fragrant rice. Cereal Research Communications 48: 485-492.
Mo ZW, Ashraf U, Pan SG, Kanu AS, Li W, Duan MY, Tian H, and Tang XR, 2016. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators induces chilling tolerance in direct seeded super and non-super rice seedlings through modulations in morpho-physiological attributes. Cereal Research Communications 44(3): 524-534.
Obizoba IC and Egbuna HI, 1992. Effect of germination and fermentation on the nutritional quality of bambara nut (Voandzeia subterranea L. Thouars) and its product (milk). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 42: 13-23.
Prask JA and Plocke DJ, 1971. A role for zinc in the structural integrity of cytoplasmic ribosomes of Euglena gracilis. Plant Physiology 48(2): 150-155.
Rathinavel K, Dharmalingam C, and Paneerselvam S, 1999. Effect of micronutrient on the productivity and quality of cotton seed cv. TCB 209 (Gossypium barbadense L.). Madras Agricultural Journal 86: 313-316.
Reed HS, 1946. Effects of zinc deficiency on phosphate metabolism of the tomato plant. American Journal of Botany 33(10): 778-784.
Rehman H, Aziz T, Farooq M, Wakeel A, and Rengel Z, 2012. Zinc nutrition in rice production systems: a review. Plant and Soil 361: 203-226.
Saha BN, Saha S, Saha S, Deb RoyP, Bhowmik A, and Hazra GC, 2020. Zinc (Zn) application methods influences Zn and iron (Fe) bioavailability in brown rice. Cereal Research Communications 48: 293-299.
Seethambaram Y and Das VSR, 1985. Photosynthesis and activities and C3 and C4 photosynthetic enzymes under zinc deficiency in Oryza sativa L. and Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke. Photosynthetica 19: 72-79.
Sharma SK, Singh H, and Kohli UK, 1999. Influence of boron and zinc on seed yield and quality in radish. Seed Research 27: 154-158.
Shi LL, Shen MX, Wu HJ, Lu CY, Mei LJ, Zhu XL, Wang HH, and Song YS, 2020. Using sowing date management to promote micronutrient quality and alleviate cadmium accumulation in rice grains. Cereal Research Communication 48: 575-583.
Shrotri CK, Tewari MN, and Rathore VS, 1980. Effects of zinc nutrition on sucrose biosynthesis in maize. Phytochemistry 19(1): 139-140.
Sultana N, Ikeda T, and Kashem MA, 2001. Effect of foliar spray of nutrient solutions on photosynthesis, dry matter accumulation and yield in seawater-stressed rice. Environmental
 and Experimental Botany 46(2): 129-140.
Tsui C, 1948. The role of zinc in auxin synthesis in tomato plant. American Journal of Botany 35(3): 172-179.
Uriyo MG, 2000. Changes in enzyme activities during germination of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata, cv. California Blackeye). Food Chemistry 73(1): 7-10.
Veerappan V, Rangnathan U, and Mannar J, 2019. Effect of organic foliar spray with pulse sprout extract on seed yield and quality of rice (Oryza sativa). Journal of Plant Nutrition 42(8): 900-914.
Vidal-Valverde C, Frias J, Sierra I, Blazquez I, Lambein F, and Kuo YH, 2002. New functional legume food by germination: effect on the nutritive value of beans lentils and peas. European Food Research and Technology 215: 472-477.
 Yang XW, Tian XH, Gale WJ, Cao YX, Lu XC, and Zhao AQ, 2011. Effect of soil and foliar zinc application on zinc concentration and bioavailability in wheat grain grown on potentially zinc-deficient soil. Cereal Research Communications 39(4): 535-543.