Potential survey of Iranian hexaploid landraces and modern cultivated bread wheat for iron, zinc, phytate, and phytate/mineral molar ratio

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Plant Genetics and Breeding, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran P. O. Box 14115-336, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran


Phytate, the highest inorganic phosphorus in cereal grains, is an anti-nutritional factor that reduces the bioavailability of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). The whole grains of 109 hexaploid landraces and modern bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were used to determine Fe, Zn, and phytate concentrations and their bioavailability using phytate:mineral molar ratios. In addition, some morphological and physiological features were identified as contributory factors for the screening process. In the field experiment, the concentrations of Fe and Zn, ranged between 0.036-0.255 mg/g and 0.030-0.085 mg/g, respectively. There were no significant differences in Fe and Zn concentration between the bread wheat cultivars and landraces. Therefore, efforts made by breeders for developing high-yielding wheat didn’t have detrimental effects on Fe and Zn concentrations. The modern bread wheat cultivars showed a significantly higher phytate concentration than landraces. Grain phytate ranged from 15.07-28.77 mg/g resulting in a variation in phytate:Fe of 6.24-58.14 and phytate:Zn of 32.20-77.22, indicating poor bioavailability of these minerals. The identified drawbacks were due to relatively high phytate concentration which in turn could be due to a high level of soil phosphorus concentration, suggesting increasing mineral bioavailability by the breeding methods to reduce the phytate and phytate:mineral ratio. In the solution culture experiment, the role of root length, root dry weight, and root nutrient concentration in distinguishing cultivars’ Fe uptake was demonstrated. The study also revealed that lower values of root length, root dry weight, and leaf dry weight led to lesser leaf Fe which in turn caused reduced contents of photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence. Due to high Zn and Fe concentration, and low concentration of phytate and phytate:mineral molar ratio, some of the current landraces such as Khoram Abad (1), Sarouq (4), Eskan Arak (2), and Hoseinabad Arak could be exploited by breeding strategies in biofortification programs.


Article Title [Persian]

ارزیابی پتانسیل ارقام بومی هگزاپلوئید و ارقام زراعی نوین گندم نان از نظر آهن، روی، فیتات و نسبت‌های مولی فیتات به عناصر معدنی

Authors [Persian]

  • مژگان غلامی ملکرودی 1
  • قاسم کریم زاده 1
  • تهمینه لهراسبی 2
  • محمد صادق ثابت 1
  • سروه فتحی 1
1 گروه ژنتیک و به‌نژادی گیاهی، پردیس کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، صندوق پستی 336-14115
2 گروه زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی، موسسه ملی مهندسی ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری، تهران
Abstract [Persian]

فیتات که عمده ترین شکل فسفر غیرآلی در غلات است، یک عامل ضد تغذیه‌ای است که زیست‌فراهمی آهن و روی را کاهش می‌دهد. مجموع 109 رقم بومی و زراعی نوین گندم نان (Triticum aestivum L.) جهت تعیین میزان آهن، روی، فیتات و نسبت‌های مولی فیتات به عناصر معدنی مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. علاوه براین، تعدادی از ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیکی و فیزیولوژیکی تأثیرگذار بر فرآیند غربالگری نیز شناسایی شدند. در آزمایش مزرعه‌ای میزان غلظت آهن و روی به ترتیب بین 0.255-0.036 و 0.085-0.030 میلی‌گرم بر گرم متغیر بودند. تفاوت معنی‌داری بین محتوای غلظت آهن و روی بین ارقام بومی و ارقام زراعی مشاهده نشد. بنابراین، تلاش‌هایی که توسط به‌نژادگران برای تولید ارقام گندم با عملکرد بالا صورت گرفته است تأثیر تعیین کننده‌ای در کاهش محتوای آهن و روی نداشته است. از طرف دیگر ارقام زراعی نوین به طور معنی‌داری دارای مقادیر بالاتری از فیتات در مقایسه با ارقام بومی بودند. محتوای فیتات دانه دارای دامنه‌ای بین 28.77-15.07 میلی‌گرم بر گرم بود که منجر به ایجاد دامنه 58.14-6.24 برای نسبت فیتات به آهن و 77.22-32.20 در نسبت فیتات به روی شد که خود نشان‌دهنده زیست‌فراهمی ضعیف این دو عنصر است. این معایب ناشی از بالا بودن غلظت فیتات است که آن هم به نوبه خود می‌تواند ناشی از بالا بودن مقادیر فسفر در خاک باشد. در نتیجه به‌نژادی برای کاهش فیتات و نسبت فیتات به عناصر معدنی می‌تواند منجر به افزایش زیست‌فراهمی عناصر معدنی شود. در آزمایش محلول غذایی، نقش حیاتی طول و وزن خشک ریشه و غلظت عناصر ریشه در توانایی جذب آهن در ارقام مشخص شد. همچنین، مشخص گردید که مقادیر کم طول و وزن خشک ریشه و برگ منجر به کاهش آهن برگ شد و آن هم به نوبه خود منجر به کاهش محتوای رنگدانه‌های فتوسنتزی و کلروفیل فلوروسانس گردید. برخی از ارقام بومی مانند خرم آباد 1، ساروق 4، اسکان اراک 2 و حسین آباد اراک به دلیل دارا بودن غلظت‌های بالای آهن و روی و همچنین مقادیر پایین فیتات و نسبت‌های مولی فیتات به عناصر معدنی می‌توانند در برنامه‌های به‌نژادی برای غنی‌سازی زیستی مورد بهره‌برداری قرار گیرند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • رنگدانه‌های فتوسنتزی
  • ریزمغذی ها
  • غنی‌سازی زیستی
  • نسبت مولی
  • Triticum aestivum
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