Karyological studies and chromosome variation among Iranian endemic Allium species (Amaryllidaceae)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Plant Genetics and Breeding, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran P. O. Box 14115-336, Iran

2 Agronomy and Plant Breeding Department, Agricultural College, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran P. O. Box 14115-336, Iran


One of the largest monocotyledonous genus in the Amaryllidaceae family is the Allium genus that includes approximately 900 species. This study aimed to examine the variations and clustering of eight Iranian endemic Allium species based on karyotype features. The species were collected from wild habitats across different geographical areas of Iran. A. sativum, A. stipitatum, A. fistolosum, A. umbellicatum, A. stamineum, A. lenkoranicum, and A. rubellum, were diploids (2n = 2x = 16), but A. atroviolaceum was triploid (2n = 3x = 24). The results represent x = 8 for basic chromosome numbers in all species. Analysis of variance showed significant interspecific variations for all eight chromosomal parameters tested. The mean of chromosome lengths was 11.19 μm, varied from 8.59 μm to 13.81 μm for A. atroviolaceum and A. stipitatum, respectively. In all species, the chromosome types were determined as mostly metacentric (m) and submetacentric (sm), formed five different karyotype formulas of 16m (A. stipitatum, A. fistolosum, A. stamineum), 14m+2sm (A. sativum, A. rubellum), 12m+4sm (A. lenkoranicum), 10m+6sm (A. umbellicatum), and 24m (A. atroviolaceum). According to Stebbins' classification, all karyotypes were grouped in the 1A class and represented the most symmetrical karyotypes. The information obtained from karyotype and chromosome morphology has an appreciable value in understanding the taxon evolution and interrelations.


Article Title [Persian]

مطالعه کاریولوژی و تنوع کروموزومی در گونه‏ های Allium بومی ایران (Amaryllidaceae)

Authors [Persian]

  • وحید صیادی 1
  • قاسم کریم زاده 1
  • محمد رضا نقوی 2
  • سجاد رشیدی منفرد 3
1 گروه ژنتیک و به‏نژادی گیاهی، پردیس کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران ص پ 336-14115
2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج
3 گروه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران ص پ 336-14115
Abstract [Persian]

سرده، Allium، با دارا بودن تقریباً 900 گونه یکی از بزرگترین سرده‏ های تک لپه‏ ای در خانواده Amaryllidaceae را تشکیل می‏دهد. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی تنوع و خوشه‏ بندی تعداد هشت گونه Allium بومی ایران بر اساس ویژگی‏ های کاریوتیپی بود. گونه‏ های مورد بررسی از رویشگاه‌های طبیعی آنان در مکان‏ های جغرافیایی مختلف ایران جمع آوری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که گونه‏ های A. sativum، A. stipitatum، A. fistolosum،  A. umbellicatum،  A. stamineum،  A. lenkoranicum و  A. rubellum دیپلوئید هستند (16 = x2 = n2)، ولی گونه A. atroviolaceum تریپلوئید (24 = x3 = n2) بود. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده تعداد کروموزوم پایه در همه گونه‏ ها برابر با 8 =x  بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که تنوع بین گونه‏ ای معنی‏ داری برای هشت ویژگی کروموزومی مورد بررسی وجود دارد. میانگین طول کروموزوم‌هاμm  19/11 بود که از μm 59/8 تا μm 81/13 به ترتیب در دو گونه‏ 
A. atroviolaceum و A. stipitatum متغیر بود. در همه گونه‏ ها، نوع کروموزوم ‏ها به صورت متاسنتریک (m) و ساب متاسنتریک (sm) بودند به طوری که تشکیل پنج فرمول مختلف کاریوتیپی شامل: m16 (A. stipitatum, A. fistolosum, A. stamineum)، sm2+m14 (A. sativum, A. rubellum)،sm 4+m12 (A. lenkoranicum)، sm6+m10 (A. umbellicatum) و sm24  (A. atroviolaceum) دادند. بر مبنای دسته‏ بندی استبینز، همه کاریوتیپ‏ ها در کلاس A1 گروه بندی شدند که نشان دهنده متقارن ترین کاریوتیپ ‏ها می ‏باشد. اطلاعات به دست آمده از کاریوتیپ و ریخت ‏شناسی کروموزوم در درک تکامل تاکسون و روابط متقابل بین آن­ ها از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. 

Keywords [Persian]

  • تقارن کاریوتیپی
  • کروموزوم
  • تنوع
  • سطح پلوئیدی
  • Allium L
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