Salicylic acid is associated with improved growth and resistance of olives (Olea europaea L.) to Verticillium wilt

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Plant Protection, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran


To improve the growth of olive and find a suitable approach for controlling Verticillium dahlia in this plant, treatment of different cultivars by salicylic acid (SA) was evaluated. Nine-month-old seedlings of Koroneiki, Marry, Rowghani, and Zard cultivars were pre-treated with 0, 5, and 10 mM SA at 15-days intervals, and then roots were inoculated by dipping into a defoliating isolate of V. dahliae. The dry weight of different tissues was measured separately at the end of the trial (14 weeks after inoculation). The response was assessed by grading the severity of symptoms on the 0-4 scale and calculating the area under the disease progress curve. Also, the concentration of phenolic compounds in the root tissues, the activity of the superoxide dismutase enzyme, the final intensity of symptoms, and the percentage of dead plants were measured. Foliar spray of 10 mM SA increased the vegetative growth of the olive cultivars. The results showed that treatment with SA decreases the severity of Verticillium wilt. The root phenol level and the activity of superoxide dismutase were significantly higher in the plants treated with 10 mM SA as compared to the control plants. Disease progression had a negative relationship with the superoxide dismutase activity and total phenols of the roots in olive cultivars. 


Article Title [Persian]

ارتباط اسید سالیسیلیک با بهبود رشد و تحریک مقاومت زیتون (Olea europaea L.) به پژمردگی ورتیسیلیومی

Authors [Persian]

  • عببدالحسین طاهری
  • سیدجواد صانعی
  • سید اسماعیل رضوی
گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان
Abstract [Persian]

به‌ منظور بهبود رشد و پیدا کردن یک روش مناسب برای کنترل Verticillium dahliae، عامل پژمردگی ورتیسیلیومی، تیمار ارقام زیتون توسط اسید سالیسیلیک (SA) مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. در این بررسی، نهال‌های نُه ‌ماهه زیتون شامل کورونایکی، ماری، روغنی و زرد پس از تیمار توسط SA با غلظت‌های 0، 5 و 10 میلی‌مولار با جدایه برگ ­ریز V. dahliae، جدا شده از زیتون از منطقه گرگان، به‌روش غوطه‌ور کردن ریشه مایه‌زنی شدند. محلول‌پاشی گیاهان زیتون هر 15 روز یک بار توسط SA انجام شد. در پایان آزمایش، 14 هفته پس از مایه‌زنی، وزن خشک بخش ­های مختلف گیاه به‌ طور جداگانه اندازه‌گیری شد. مقاومت با تعیین شدت علائم با استفاده از مقیاس 4-0 و محاسبه سطح زیر منحنی پیشرفت بیماری ارزیابی شد. درصد گیاهان خشک شده، میانگین شدت علائم نهایی، فراوانی جداسازی V. dahliae از بافت آوندی، فنل کل و فعالیت آنزیم سوپراکسید دیسموتاز نیز مدنظر قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که محلول‌پاشی برگ‌ها با غلظت 10 میلی‌مولار SA با افزایش رشد رویشی همراه است. SA شدت بیماری را کاهش ‌داد. گیاهان تیمار شده میزان فنل ریشه و فعالیت سوپراکسید دیسموتاز بیشتری  نسبت به گیاهان شاهد داشتند. پیشرفت بیماری با میزان فنل ریشه و فعالیت سوپراکسید دیسموتاز رابطه منفی داشت.

Keywords [Persian]

  • اسید سالیسیلیک
  • ارقام زیتون
  • پژمردگی ورتیسیلیومی
  • سوپراکسید دیسموتاز
  • فنل کل
Abo-Elyousr KAM, Hussein MAM, Allam ADA, and Hassan MH, 2009. Salicylic acid induced systemic resistance on onion plants against Stemphylium vesicarium. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 42(11): 1042-1050.
Ahuja I, Kissen R, and Bones AM, 2012. Phytoalexins in defense against pathogens. Trends in Plant Science 17(2): 73-90.
Al-Abasi KM, 2009. Growth and ionic relations in ‘Nabali’ olive during salinity stress as affected by salicylic acid and relief treatments. Advances in Horticultural Science 23(2): 101-107.
Arfan M, Athar HR, and Ashraf M, 2007. Does exogenous application of salicylic acid through the rooting medium modulate growth and photosynthetic capacity in two differently adapted spring wheat cultivars under salt stress? Journal of Plant Physiology 164(6): 685-694.
Baidez AG, Gomez P, Del Rio JA, and Ortuno A, 2007. Dysfunctionality of the xylem in Olea europaea L. plants associated with the infection process by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Role of phenolic compounds in plant defense mechanism. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55(9): 3373-3377.
Birem F, Alcantara-Vara E, and Lopez-Escudero FJ, 2016. Water consumption and vegetative growth progress in resistant
and susceptible olive cultivars infected by Verticillium dahliae. Agricultural Sciences 7(4): 230-238.
Bubici G and Cirulli M, 2012. Control of Verticillium wilt of olive by resistant rootstocks. Plant and Soil 352: 363-376.
Campbell CL and Madden LV, 1990. Introduction to Plant Disease Epidemiology. John Wiley and Sons, USA.
Chaudhary MHZ, Sarwar N, and Chaughati FA, 2001. Biochemical changes in chickpea plant after induction treatment with simple chemical for systemic resistance against ascochyta blight in the field. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan 23(3): 182-186.
Chitra K, Ragupathi N, Dhanalakshmi K, Mareeshwari P, Indra N, Kamalakannan A, Sankaralingam A, and Rabindran R, 2008. Salicylic acid induced systemic resistance on peanut against Alternaria alternata. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 41(1): 50 -56.
Colella C, Miacola C, Amenduni M, D’Amico M, Bubici G, and Cirulli M, 2008. Sources of Verticillium wilt resistance in wild olive germplasm from the Mediterranean region. Plant Pathology 57(3): 533-539.
Del Rio JA, Baidez AG, Botia JM, and Ortuno A, 2003. Enhancement of phenolic compounds in olive plants (Olea europaea L.) and their influence on resistance against Phytophthora sp. Food Chemistry 83(1): 75-78.
Desender S, Andrivon D, and Val F, 2007. Activation of defense reactions in Solanaceae: where is the specificity? Cell Microbiology 9(1): 21-30.
Erten L and Yildiz M, 2011. Screening for resistance of Turkish olive cultivars and clonal rootstocks to Verticillium wilt. Phytoparasitica 39: 83-92.
Fariduddin Q, Hayat S, and Ahmad A, 2003. Salicylic acid influences net photosynthetic rate, carboxylation efficiency, nitrate reductase activity, and seed yield in Brassica juncea. Photosynthetica 41: 281-284.
Fathi S, Kharazmi M, and Najafian S. 2019. Effects of salicylic acid foliar application on morpho-physiological traits of purslane (Portulaca olaracea L.) under salinity stress conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding 9(2): 1-9.
Ferreira RB, Monteiro S, Freitas R, Santos CN, Chen Z, Batista LM, Duarte J, Borges A, and Teixeira AR, 2007. The role of plant defence proteins in fungal pathogenesis. Molecular Plant Pathology 8(5): 539-711.
Gharbi Y, Bouazizi E, and Triki MA, 2016. Inductions of defense response in olive plants against Verticillium dahliae through application of salicylic acid as abiotic inducer. Journal of Advances in Biology and Biotechnology 5(4): 1-9.
Giannopolitis CN and Ries SK, 1977. Superoxide dismutases: I. Occurrence in higher plants. Plant Physiology 59(2): 309-314.
Goicoechea N, 2006. Verticillium-Induced wilt in pepper: physiological disorders and perspectives for controlling the disease. Plant Pathology Journal 5(2): 258-265.
Hassannejad S and Porheidar Ghafarbi S, 2018. Assessment of some chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of different corn cultivars in response to clodinafop-propagrgyl herbicide and salicylic acid. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding 8(1): 47-57.
Hayat Q, Hayat S, Irfan M, and Ahmad A, 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: a review. Environmental and Experimental Botany 68(1): 14-25.
Karagiannidis N, Bletsos F, and Stavropoulos N, 2002. Effect of Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb.) and mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae) on root colonization, growth and nutrient uptake in tomato and eggplant seedlings. Scientia Horticulturae 94(1): 145-156.
Lopez-Escudero FJ and Blanco-Lopez MA, 2001. Effect of a single or double soil solarization to control Verticillium wilt in established olive orchards in Spain. Plant Disease 85(5): 489-496.
Lopez-Escudero FJ, del Rio C, Caballero JM, and Blanco-Lopez MA, 2004. Evaluation of olive cultivars for resistance to Verticillium dahliae. European Journal of Plant Pathology 110: 79-85.
Markakis EA, Tjamos SE, Antoniou PP, Roussos PA, Paplomatas EJ, and Tjamos EC, 2010. Phenolic responses of resistant and susceptible olive cultivars induced by defoliating and nondefoliating Verticillium dahliae pathotypes. Plant Disease 94(9):1156-1162.
Mishra AK, Sharma K, and Misra RS, 2012. Elicitor recognition, signal transduction and induced resistance in plants. Journal of Plant Interactions 7(2): 95-120.
Montes-Osuna N and Mercado-Blanco J, 2020. Verticillium wilt of olive and its control: what did we learn during the last decade? Plants 9(6):735.
Mott GA, Middleton MA, Desveaux D, and Guttman DS. 2014. Peptides and small molecules of the plant-pathogen apoplastic arena. Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 677.
Nuhse TS, Boller T, and Peck SC, 2003. A plasma membrane syntaxin is phosphorylated in response to the bacterial elicitor flagellin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278(46): 45248-45254.
Pancheva TV, Popova LP, and Uzunova AN, 1996. Effect of salicylic acid on growth and photosynthesis in barley plants. Journal of Plant Physiology 149(1-2): 57-63.
Raskin I, 1992. Role of salicylic acid in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 43: 439-463.
Roussos PA, Pontikis CA, and Tsantili E, 2002. Root promoting compounds detected in olive knot extract in high quantities as response to infection by the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. Plant Science 163: 533-541.
Sadras VO, Quiroz F, Echarte L, Escande A, and Pereyra VR, 2000. Effect of Verticillium dahliae on photosynthesis, leaf expansion and senescence of field-grown sunflower. Annals of Botany 86(5): 1007-1015.
Sanei SJ and Razavi SE, 2017a. Sources of Verticillium wilt resistance in wild olive germplasm from the Golestan province, Northern Iran. Journal of Crop Protection 6(4): 457-470.
Sanei SJ and Razavi SE, 2017b. Resistance and vegetative growth analysis of some olive cultivars in response to a defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 4(2): 239-250.
Sanei SJ, Waliyar F, Razavi SE, and Okhovvat SM, 2008. Vegetative compatibility, host range and pathogenicity of Verticillium dahliae isolates in Iran. International Journal of Plant Production 2: 37-46.
Sofo A, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C, and Masia A, 2004. Effects of different irradiance levels on some antioxidant enzymes and on malondialdehyde content during rewatering in olive tree. Plant Science 166: 293-302.
Tsror (Lahkim) L, Hazanovsky M, Mordechi-Lebiush S, and Sivan S, 2001. Agressivness of Verticillium dahliae isolates from different vegetative compatibility groups to potato. Plant Pathology 50(4): 477- 482.
Vimala R and Suriachandraselvan M, 2009. Induced resistance in bhendi against powdery mildew by foliar application of salicylic acid. Journal of Biopesticides 2(1): 111-114.
Xu F, Yang L, Zhang J, Guo X, Zhang X, and Li G, 2012. Effect of temperature on conidial germination, mycelial growth, and aggressiveness of the defoliating and nondefoliating pathotypes of Verticillium dahliae from cotton in China. Phytoparasitica 40(4): 319-327.