Karyotype analysis of some Allium species in Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Horticulture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

2 Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran.


The karyotypes of 10 species (15 accessions) of Allium from Iran were investigated using the squash technique and 1% (w/v) aceto-iron-hematoxylin stain. The basic chromosome number was x = 8, and only in A. giganteum (1) x = 7. Karyotypes of 14 taxa of Allium were diploid with 2n = 16; only A. macrochaetum was tetraploid with 2n = 32. Satellite chromosomes were seen in A. asarense. All karyotypes were symmetrical, consisting of metacentric and submetacentric chromosome pairs. Only A. caspium and A. stipitatum (1) had subtelocentric chromosomes. Karyotype analysis according to Stebbins categories placed the studied taxa in symmetric classes of 1A and 2A, indicating a symmetric karyotype. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences for total chromosome length (TCL), mean chromosome length (CL), long arm length (LA), short arm length (SA) and intrachromosomal asymmetry index (A1). The longest chromosome length was detected on A. asarense, A. elburzense, A. giganteum (3), A. rotundum and A. stipitatum (3) (17.9-19.7 μm), while A. ampeloperasum demonstrated the shortest value (8.2 μm). Results of cluster analysis based on chromosomal parameters classified the taxa into four groups using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Using principal component analysis, the first three components determined 97.3% of the total variation. The grouping of the taxa based on the 2-D scatter plot using the first two principal components, corresponding to the results of the karyotypic characteristics.


Article Title [فارسی]

تجزیه کاریوتیپ برخی از گونه های Allium در ایران

Abstract [فارسی]

کاریوتیپ­های 10 گونه (15 جمعیت) آلیوم از ایران با استفاده از تکنیک اسکواش و رنگ آمیزی استو آهن هماتوکسیلین یک درصد مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. تعداد کروموزوم پایه x = 8 و فقط در A. giganteum(1)،  x = 7بود. کاریوتیپ­ های 14 جمعیت آلیوم دیپلوئید (2n = 16) و  A. macrochaetum تتراپلوئید (2n = 32) بود. در A. asarense کروموزوم­ های ماهواره ­دار مشاهده شد. کلیه کاریوتیپ­ ها متقارن بوده و از جفت کروموزوم­ های متاسنتریک و ساب متاسنتریک تشکیل شدند و فقط A. caspium و A. stipitatum (1) کروموزوم ­های ساب تلوسنتریک داشتند. تجزیه کاریوتیپ مطابق دسته بندی استبینز، گونه­ های مورد مطالعه را در کلاس­ های تقارن 1A و 2A  قرار داد که نشانگر کاریوتیپ متقارن است. نتایج تجزیه واریانس از نظر صفات مجموع طول کروموزوم ­ها، طول کروموزوم، طول بازوی بلند، طول بازوی کوتاه و شاخص عدم تقارن درون کروموزومی اختلاف معنی­ داری نشان داد. بیشترین طول کروموزوم درA. asarense ، A. elburzense ، A. giganteum (3) ، A. rotundum   وA. stipitatum (3)  (19/7-17/9 میکرومتر) مشاهده شد، در حالی که A. ampeloperasum کمترین مقدار (8/2 میکرومتر) را نشان داد. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه خوشه ای بر اساس پارامترهای کروموزومی با استفاده از روشUPGMA ، جمعیت ­ها را در چهار گروه طبقه بندی کرد. با استفاده از تجزیه به مولفه­ های اصلی، سه مؤلفه اول 97/3 درصد از کل تنوع را تبیین کردند. پلات پراکندگی دو بعدی بر اساس گروه بندی دو مولفه اصلی اول مطابق با نتایج ویژگی­ های کاریوتیپی بود.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • تجزیه به مولفه های اصلی
  • تجزیه خوشه ای
  • سیتوژنتیک
  • کاریولوژی
  • کروموزوم
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