Inheritance of agronomic and physiological traits in wheat under water deficit stress and normal conditions

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD graduate, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.


To study the inheritance of several agronomic and physiological traits, an experiment was conducted in the research station of the University of Tabriz, Iran, under water deficit stress and normal conditions using the generation mean and generation variance analyses. The generations were produced from the cross of Arg and Moghan3 varieties. The experiment was conducted as a split-plot design based on randomized complete blocks with two replications. The irrigation conditions were arranged in the main plots and generations in the subplots. In the stress condition, irrigation was withheld after pollination. Based on the results of generation means analysis for flag leaf length in the normal condition and flag leaf width, flag leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content in both conditions, the additive-dominance model explained variation among generation means. For other traits, including flag leaf length under water stress condition and plant height, peduncle length, spike length, fertile tillers, days to heading, number of grains per spike, head weight, straw weight, biomass, grain yield and harvest index in both water-stress and normal conditions, the six-parameter model was fit for the generation means implying the presence of non-allelic interactions in the inheritance of these traits. Broad sense heritability and narrow sense heritability for the traits were estimated as 0.70 - 0.99 and 0.03 - 0.30 in the water-stress conditions and 0.60 - 0.99 and 0.10 - 0.55 in the normal conditions, respectively. At both conditions, the dominance genetic variance was higher than the additive genetic variance for most of the traits under study. The average degree of dominance for all characters at both water-stress and normal conditions was greater than unity which showed the existence of over-dominance gene action in controlling the traits under study. These results suggest the need for exploiting non-additive gene action by producing hybrid varieties in wheat if breeders overcome the barriers of producing hybrid seed.


Article Title [Persian]

وراثت صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک در گندم نان تحت شرایط تنش کم آبی و عادی

Abstract [Persian]

به منظور بررسی وراثت برخی صفات زراعی و فیزیویولوژیک در گندم نان، تجزیه میانگین نسل­ ها و تجزیه واریانس نسل­ ها در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه تبریز در شرایط عادی و تنش­ آبی انجام شد. نسل ­ها از تلاقی دو رقم ارگ (متحمل به خشکی) و مغان3 (حساس به خشکی) حاصل شدند. آزمایش به صورت طرح کرت­ های خرد شده در قالب بلوک­ های کامل تصادفی در دو تکرار صورت گرفت. شرایط آبیاری در کرت­ های اصلی و نسل­ ها در کرت­ های فرعی قرار داده شدند. در شرایط تنش، آبیاری پس از گرده ­افشانی متوقف شد. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه میانگین نسل­ ها، مدل افزایشی - غالبیت برای طول برگ پرچم (شرایط آبیاری عادی) و برای عرض برگ پرچم، مساحت برگ پرچم و میزان کلروفیل برگ (در دو شرایط تنش کم­ آبی و عادی) برازش یافت. برای سایر صفات (طول برگ پرچم در شرایط تنش کم­ آبی و ارتفاع بوته، طول پدانکل، طول سنبله، تعداد پنجه­های بارور، روز تا ظهور سنبله، تعداد دانه درسنبله، وزن سنبله، وزن کاه، بیوماس، عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت در هر دو شرایط)، مدل شش پارامتری بهترین برازش را داشت که بیانگر وجود اثرهای متقابل غیرآللی در کنترل صفات مورد بررسی بود. دامنه وراثت پذیری عمومی و خصوصی برای صفات مورد مطالعه در شرایط تنش کم­ آبی به ترتیب0/99 - 0/70 و 0/30 - 0/03 و در شرایط عادی به ترتیب 0/99 - 0.60 و  0/55 - 0/10 به دست آمد. در هر دو شرایط، واریانس غالبیت بزرگ­تر از واریانس افزایشی برای اکثر صفات بود. متوسط درجه غالبیت نیز برای کلیه صفات در هر دو شرایط بیش­تر از یک بود که وجود پدیده فوق غالبیت را در کنترل این صفات نشان داد. این نتایج نیاز به بهره­ برداری از اثرهای ژنی غیرافزایشی را از طریق تولید واریته­های هیبرید در گندم، در صورت رفع موانع تولید بذر هیبرید، گوشزد می­کند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • اجزای واریانس ژنتیکی
  • تجزیه میانگین نسل ها
  • تنش کم آبی
  • عمل ژن
  • وراثت پذیری
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