Growth analysis, agronomic and physiological characteristics of three hybrid varieties of maize under deficit irrigation conditions

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Unit of Agroecology, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.

2 Meshkinshahr College of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

Abstract

Determining appropriate deficit irrigation regimes and varieties under these conditions is necessary to optimize the use of available water in arid and semi-arid regions. In this regard, field experiments were carried out for two years (2014-2015) at the Moghan plain, Iran. The experimental design in each year was split plot based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. The main plots consisted of four irrigation levels: normal irrigation, 80% of maximum daily crop evapotranspiration (ETc), 70% ETc and 50% ETc. Three maize hybrids (SC704, SC703, SC705) were arranged in the sub-plots. Mean comparisons showed that deficit irrigation caused a significant decrease in grain yield and other agronomic traits, physiological characteristics (chlorophyll a, b and relative water content) and growth parameters (leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate). On the other hand, leaf rolling percentage increased due to the water deficit stress. By increasing deficit irrigation intensity (especially at 50% ETc), chlorophyll a, b and relative water content decreased in SC705 more than the other two hybrids (SC703, SC704) and the leaf rolling percentage at the severe stress condition reached to 60% in SC705. The highest grain yield (8.51 t/ha) and biomass (19.36 t/ha), averaged over two years, were observed under normal irrigation for the SC705 hybrid. However, this hybrid had minimum grain yield and biomass at 50% ETc. By increasing water deficit from normal irrigation to 50% ETc, significant decrease was observed for leaf area index, plant growth rate, relative growth rate and net photosynthesis rate of SC705. Due to the sensitivity of physiological characteristics and growth parameters to the deficit irrigation and the influence of grain yield from these traits, it seems necessary to prevent the occurrence of water deficit at critical stages of maize growth. In conclusion, due to the sensitivity of the SC705 to water shortage, this hybrid is not recommended to water deficit conditions and it would rather be planted when enough irrigation water is available. On the other hand, SC704 seems suitable for the water deficit environments, especially at the severe water stress condition (50% ETc).
 
 

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

آنالیز رشد و خصوصیات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک سه هیبرید ذرت تحت شرایط کم آبیاری

Abstract [فارسی]

کم آبیاری و انتخاب واریته مناسب مطلوبترین روش در مصرف آب کمتر به ویژه برای مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک می‌باشد. بر این اساس، آزمایشات مزرعه‌ای در دو سال زراعی (94-93) در دشت مغان انجام شد. این آزمایش در هر سال به صورت طرح کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. بر این اساس، چهار سطح آبیاری شامل آبیاری نرمال، 80 درصد  ETc، 70 درصد ETc و 50 درصد ETc به عنوان کرت‌های اصلی و سه هیبرید ذرت (سینگل‌کراس­های 704، 703 و 705) به عنوان کرت‌های فرعی منظور شدند. مقایسه میانگین‌ها نشان دادند که کم آبیاری عملکرد دانه و سایر خصوصیات زراعی، فیزیولوژیک (کلروفیل a، b  و محتوای نسبی آب) و پارامترهای رشدی (شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد محصول، سرعت رشد نسبی) را تقلیل داد. از طرف دیگر، درصد لوله‌ای شدن برگ‌های ذرت با اعمال تنش کم آبیاری بیشتر شد. با افزایش شدت تنش کم آبیاری، میزان کلروفیل a، b  و  محتوای نسبی آب در هیبرید سینگل­کراس 705 نسبت به دو هیبرید دیگر (سینگل‌کراس­های 703 و 704) بیشتر کاهش یافت و درصد لوله‌ای شدن برگ در هیبرید سینگل‌کراس 705 در شرایط تنش شدید کم آبی به 60 درصد رسید. همچنین، بالاترین میزان (متوسط دو سال) عملکرد دانه (5/8 تن در هکتار)، بیوماس (36/19 تن در هکتار)، برای هیبرید سینگل‌کراس 705 در شرایط آبیاری نرمال به دست آمد. با وجود این، هیبرید یاد شده کمترین عملکرد دانه و بیوماس را در کم آبیاری 50 درصد ETc داشت. با افزایش کم آبیاری از آبیاری نرمال تا 50 درصد، معیارهای فیزیولوژیک از جمله شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد محصول، سرعت رشد نسبی و نرخ فتوسنتز خالص در هیبرید سینگل‌کراس 705 کاهش معنی داری داشتند. در نتیجه، در میان هیبریدهای مرود بررسی، سینگل کراس 705 در شرایط آبیاری نرمال و سینگل‌کراس 705 در شرایط وجود کم آبی برای دشت مغان توصیه می‌شود.
 

Keywords [فارسی]

  • خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک
  • شاخص‌های رشدی
  • صفات زراعی
  • عملکرد دانه
  • کم‌آبی
  • واریته‌های هیبرید
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